Overview of Change Management

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Overview of Change Management




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Slide1

Overview of Change Management

Slide2

Need for Transformation in Government..

New channels to access information and advice

New delivery partners

Rationalise back-office functions

Demonstrate higher quality front-line service

The need to become more citizen-focused

Lower cost and much greater efficiency

Services targeted at particular citizen segments

Improved citizen choice

Demonstrate better value for money

Public Private Partnerships

citizen and market expectations

Growing citizen and market expectations…

Slide3

Technology as an enabler in government reforms

ICTs have been an integral part of many public sector reform agendas and have helped governments successfully in: Increasing convenience to the citizens in availing government servicesIncreasing speed and quality of service delivery citizen empowerment through access to information and transparency in service deliveryReduce corruptionCost reduction and revenue growth for governmentImprove compliance with government regulations…..

e

-Governance uses Technology as a tool for reforming government

Slide4

Government and Kind of Changes

Ecosystem of Government Organizations

e-Governance

Political Environment

Legal Environment

Government Departments

Investor

s

Employees

Vendors & Intermediaries

Citizens

Economic Environment

Social Environment

People

Process

Technology

Change

Levers

Slide5

Change Levers

Levers of change in Government reforms

There are three key levers of Change in Government reforms and initiatives

Slide6

It is not the species with the greatest strength nor the one with the highest intelligence that survives, but one that is most adaptable to change

– Charles Darwin

Cockroaches

did, dinosaurs not ! This is as true of all businesses. If customers’ demands are now ignored or not taken seriously, you would extinct !

Slide7

Demystifying ‘Change’

Change is the only constant we live

with

It

has been continuous since the beginning of

time

98

% of all knowledge has been accumulated in the last 50 years

Slide8

Demystifying ‘Change’

Change today happens very

fast

It

is a way of life today and is an ongoing

process

Our

lives are filled with both predictable and unpredictable

transitions

Today

there are no longer any rest periods, change is continuous and

enormous

Traditionally

change was a short burst of disruption followed by a long plateaus of stable

operations

The

innovators change first, the diehards change

last

The people who cannot change are the “

casualities

Slide9

Demystifying ‘Change’

Change encourages innovation

There is a difference between creativity

and innovation

Creativity

looks at options and generates ideas

Innovation takes an idea and develops it into

a

practical application

Innovation requires some change in behaviors,

processes

and functions

Slide10

Demystifying ‘Change’

Most successful organisations proactively look for opportunities to change before it is forced upon them

Proactive action reinforces

Understanding of the prevailing situation

Restores faith in the organization’s

collective ability

Willingness to change

Motivate people for further change

and improvement

Slide11

Demystifying ‘Change’

Proactive change is characterized by seeking out reasons for change rather than waiting for them to arise

Major benefit of changing proactively is that you have more time-- one of the key secrets of Time Management

Change Planning in advance gives much more flexibility over options, priorities, resources and time scales

Reactive change is to respond to a crisis situation –

similar to fire

fighting

Slide12

In the book ‘Who moved my cheese’ Dr Spencer says

CHANGE will happen

Anticipate change

Monitor change

Adapt to change quickly

Enjoy change

Be ready to change again and enjoy yet

again !

Slide13

Risks of NOT managing Change

Without careful management, change can become a business nightmare, when new structures and processes are imposed

Change

then becomes an unfocused, indefinite time of turmoil

Having

started without direction and continued without focus or competent monitoring, it ends with a whimper when those involved can go no

further

Slide14

Risks of NOT managing Change

Every

growing business must understand growing pains

Growth

can lead to problems if the organization is not set to cope up with ways of doing things, that were perfect at the time it was created – but grossly inadequate or inappropriate later on

Slide15

Change Management is a new skill

Ability to manage change is an essential skill for all decision makers

Slide16

Symptoms requiring Change

C

reative people instead of generating ideas and revenue are wasted in firefighting

People spending quality time working around impractical business systems

Low morale, innovative ideas not being generated

Managers who lack the skills and perspectives are moving forward

If symptoms are cured rather than the causes, then the change effort is a quick fix that fails to address what is really troubling the business

The reason for change needs to be presented in order to generate commitment to the change effort

Slide17

Change Management in a nutshell

P

olicies about willingness to change

Proactively change again if things do not work out

Looking for constant evolution and new change opportunities to be farsighted

To give a strategic orientation towards change

To have a culture that is based on action, not statements of intent or lip service

To gain mastery over change and avoid being its victim

Managing change would shape

organisation’s

future, otherwise change would bend the organisation out of shape

Slide18

Importance of VISION in Change Management

A vision acts as a fulcrum for all change efforts providing useful guidance and inspiration outcome of change

Vision is required to see the opportunities of change

Personal vision acts as an anchor during change and outside changes become less disruptive

It is important to imagine as positive a vision as you can

If you see a dim unattractive future vision, you are more likely to end up in that situation

Gymnasiums keep posters of muscular Arnold

Schwartznegger

not Leonardo De

Caprio

!

Slide19

Change and Your Mindset

Deal with change as a matter of heart as well as the head

Drivers

for change may come from outside the business while drivers for stability come from within

Generating

awareness of the need to change involves shifting the focus to outside the business or seeing yourself as others see

you

Slide20

Change and Your Mindset

Change

can look risky

Doing

nothing is always a low risk option

Delaying

change for a while and carrying out with business as usual can seem appealing

Success

made people complacent and no introspection is generally made to sense the urgent need for change

Slide21

Mental Barriers ?

Crisis mentality can make good change management very difficult

Which

one is better…Predictive/preventive maintenance or breakdown maintenance ?

Desire

to find a quick solution moves the emphasis from long term strategic thought to short term tactical solutions that may harm the future of the business

Swift

focused unambiguous action makes it more likely that change will be non participative

Stakeholders’ engagement is an essential component of Change Management

Slide22

Change requires refreshing of knowledge and skills

Formal

education is increasingly in need of constant

updating

Big organisations

now retrain their workers

periodically

because their previous skills become terribly

obsolete

The

tech skills learnt at college or on the job become

obsolete over a period of time

Slide23

Change requires refreshing of knowledge and skills

No

set of skills stay useful forever

Making

changes work for you will require learning, being open to new directions and knowing how to say

‘goodbye’

to

your earlier knowledge

It

is

now

important to understand how to learn than

what to learn about a

particular set of

skills

“Unlearning” sometimes becomes more difficult than learning

Slide24

e-Governance and Change: Fundamental change from traditional ways of working…

Factors

Traditional Ways

New Ways

Mode of services

Service for citizens

Self service in many operations

Goal

Citizens in line

Citizens on line

Expectation

Digital exclusion

Digital participation

Change

Paper intensive work

Government on line

Management Style

Transaction Intensive

Knowledge Management

Orientation

Production cost, efficiency

User satisfaction & control, flexibility

Leadership style

Command and Control

Flexible, inter-departmental teamwork,

Organizational structure

Top down, hierarchical

Innovative entrepreneurship, multidirectional, network with central coordination, direct communication

Communication

Centralized, formal limited channels

Formal and informal, direct and fast feedback, multiple channels

Interaction

Documentary mode and interpersonal interaction

Electronic exchange, non face-to-face interaction

Process organization

Functional rationality, vertical hierarchy of control.

Horizontal hierarchy, network organization, information sharing

Slide25

Moving from physical noting on Files

to e-noting file & workflow

Slide26

Success & Failure Rate

35 % of eGov projects are total failuresInitiatives not implementedInitiatives abandoned immediately50% of eGov projects are partial failuresMain stated goals not achievedInitial success but failure after an yearSuccess for one group but failure for others15% of eGov projects are successesAll stakeholders benefitedNo adverse results

We need

an holistic

a

pproach to

improve

Success Rate

Slide27

Enablers of e-Government

20 % Technology35 % Business Process Reengineering40 % Change Management5% Luck !

Technology

Process

People

Slide28

Often creates redundancy of employees resulting in a fear of loss of jobs (that could be imaginary or real).Changes work load, work profile and work content that forces the need for re-tooling and training.Results in a loss of power and responsibility for some employees. Alters accountability, reduces discretion and flexibility, and makes performance visible and possible to monitor.Tends to flatten hierarchy by altering powers and authority vested in different levels.

Resulting Changes with e-Governance

Slide29

Fear of the unknown (for instance, introduction of new technology and changes in procedures) introduces resistance.Role of the intermediary between citizen and government is minimized. Use and dependency on technology to deliver services.Technical performance of the e-Government application in terms of poor access, lack of bandwidth, slow response, frequent break down and software problems can also create resistance.

Resulting Changes with e-Governance

Slide30

People want change, they don’t want to be changed

Slide31

Do YOU like change?

Does

it

matter

to YOU ?

Slide32

Change Management Change is a process ….

Where are you today

Where you want to be

Process of change

Time

Slide33

Change Management is like Project Management, …but it is the “people side” of projectsResearch shows that Change Management is the #1 success factor for project teams Change management is proactively managing the people side of change to achieve the desired results

What is Change Management ?

Slide34

e-Governance Project Life Cycle (eGLC)

1

.

e-Governance Strategy

Development

2.

Current

State Assessment

3

. Future

State Definition

4

.

Implementation approach and sourcing

5

.

Develop and implement IT system

6.

Operate and

sustain

Project Management Office/Unit

Change Management and Communications

Slide35

e-Governance Project Life Cycle (eGLC)

e

-Governance

Strategy Development

Current State Assessment

Future State Definition

Implementation approach and sourcing

Develop

and implement T

system

Operate and

sustain

Needs Assessment

Define clear vision & objectives

Prioritization of services and projects

Incorporate domestic and global learnings

Identify institutional structures & capacities for implementation

Define funding requirements

Define monitoring and evaluation approach…

Critical assessment of current business processes and pain areas

Best practices in similar environments

Assess legal framework and current limitations

Assess current ICT systems and their ability to support future plansAssessment of current capacities at all levels and their preparedness for e-governance..

Process reengineering and to –be process definitionIdentity IT enablement opportunities and requirementsDefine changes to the legal and regulatory environmentDevelop People change and capacity building planDevelop project awareness and communication requirements…

Define implementation approach and phasing plan (functional and geographic)Assess detailed funding requirements and business modelDevelop vendor evaluation and selection criteriaDevelop KPIs and performance levels for services and systemsDevelop RFPBid evaluation and vendor selection

Definition of detailed functional and technical requirementsSystem design and developmentSoftware quality assurance, acceptance testing and auditingTraining and capacity buildingChange management and project communicationsProject documentationProject go-live

System operations and maintenanceSoftware change managementRollout services and systems (functionality and geography)Objectives and benefits evaluation and reinforcementSustained change, capacity building and communications..

Change Management and Communications

Slide36

Problem or opportunity

Planning

Design

Development

Implementation

O&M

Project Plan

Org. & change Assessment

Team & Sponsors

Change

Mgmt planCommunicationImplement PlanRe-enforcing change

CM Plan

Project Plan & Change Management Plan

-

Integrated plan

Slide37

Never to Forget

e-Government rests on 4 PillarsProcessPeopleTechnologyResourcesStakeholder management is criticalChange Management is an pro-active approachDevelop a Change Management (CM) plan at DPR/RFP stageCM Plan runs parallel to PM

Slide38

There are three key levers of Change in Government reforms and initiatives

People and Organisational Change

Slide39

Change Management involves aligning the trinity of People, Process and Technology to strategy.

People and Organisational Change

Research shows that

‘Nine out of ten significant barriers to achieving successful change are people related’

Slide40

Top ten barriers to change

People and Organisational Change

1. Inadequate resources

2. Poorly communicated strategy

3. Unclear definition of actions required to execute

4. Unclear accountabilities for execution

5. Organisational silos and culture blocking execution

6. Inadequate performance monitoring

7. Inadequate consequences or rewards for failure or success

8. Poor senior leadership

9. Uncommitted leadership

10.

Unapproved

Strategy

Slide41

IndividualHabit : Deep rooted ways of doing things and working in the governmentSecurity: Loss of feeling safe. Underlying Security & SuspicionEconomic factors: Doubts around performance, productivity and pay issues. Lack of confidence in using the IT systemsFear of unknown: What will happen next? Will ICT implementation lead to my job becoming redundant?

e-Governance and Barriers to Change

OrganistionalStructural Inertia: Rigid processes and systemsLack of common vision: There is no common understanding of the vision for changeGroup Inertia: Change in individual behaviors at times inhibited by the way the group worksThreat to expertise: The implementation of ICT may be observed as a threat to the expertise of a specialized group. Threat to established power relationships: Perception of loss of power, authority and discretion.

Management of change issues and people perceptions becomes imperative in e-Governance projects.

People and Organisational

Change

Slide42

Almost 92 % of the challenges in a transformation exercise are around people issues

Lack of Participation Ineffective Communication• Lack of ownership• Limited endorsement/ support• Poor planning & Control

Lack of involvement• Lack of Readiness• Lack of understanding• Lack of strategic alignment

Fear of Job loss/Change• Inadequate Skill development/ Training / Lack of resources• Unclear Roles and Responsibilities• Lack of user buy-in

Weak / inadequate processes• Poor process alignment• Faulty data

Faulty data• Integration Issues• Configuration Issues• Over complex technology

Leadership

42%

Organizational & Cultural Issues

27%

User Issues

23%

People

Process

Technology

Process Issues

4%

Technology Issues

4%

Slide43

People related challenges in Change Management relate to three important aspects: Mindset (Culture) Communication and Awareness (Internal and External stakeholders)Skill-sets (Human capital development and life-long learning)

People related challenges in Change Management

75% of all organizational

change programs fail, largely because employees feel left out of the process and end up lacking the motivation, skills and knowledge to adopt new systems and

procedures

Slide44

Essential ‘People’ components of Change Management

Slide45

Mindset is the way we think, which reflects in our actionFor managing change, change in mindset is importantShift in mindset required to focus on new ways, techniques, requirements and outcomesExperts say that half the battle is won if people develop the right mindset and thereby focus their efforts towards the change initiativeChange in mindset is also essential for sustaining change / making change stick

Importance of ‘mindset’ in Change Management

Slide46

Some of the typical challenges / barriers caused due to culture / mindset issues areEmployees believe that ICT would replace them and cause job lossesReluctance to give up traditional methods of working and adopt new onesSuspicion about the security of IT systemsLack of confidence in using the IT systemChange in mindset of entire Government entities requiredThe best way to meet the ‘mindset’ related challenges is by developing an appropriate communication strategy.

Challenge:

Organisational

Culture/Mindset

Slide47

Collaborative - The target population are engaged in the change process, typically through cascading workshops or meetings. They will be kept up to date on the issues. Their views will be actively sought and acted upon. Feedback will demonstrate how their input has been acted upon. Consultative - The target population is informed about the changes and their views are sought. Directive - The workforce is informed about the changes and why those changes are important. Coercive - The workforce is told that they must obey the new instructions.

People and

Organisational

Change

Slide48

Style vs Degree of Change

Collaborative

Consultative

Directive

Coercive

Fine Tuning

Transformational

Incremental

Degree of change

Style

Supportive

workforce

Resistant

workforce

Slide49

Stages

Research shows an overwhelming bias toward initiating change management early in the project. Change management activities that are launched at the beginning of a project can be more proactive in addressing the people side of change. When change management is brought in as an add-on late in the project, it is typically to 'fight fires' and help with damage control.

When do change management activities begin? 

Slide50

Organisations don’t adapt to change, People doHuman behavior is complexChange initiatives face varying levels of resistance and questioning of motive of change People resist change only when they feel that change is being imposed on them, without their consent Costs of ignoring behavioral risk could be significant in the current economic context

People and Organisational Change

Slide51

Barriers and success factors related to People

Top 10 barriers

Top 10 success factors

Competing resources 48%

Functional boundaries 44%

Change skills 43%Middle management 38%Long IT lead times 35%Communication 35%Employee opposition 33%HR (people/training) issues 33%Initiative fatigue 32%Unrealistic timetables 31%

Line manager sponsorship 82%

Treating people fairly 82%

Involving employees 75%Giving quality communications 70%Providing sufficient training 68%Using clear performance measures 65%Building teams after change 62%Focusing on culture/skill changes 62%Rewarding success 60%Using internal champions 60%

The mentioned survey findings indicate that most of the barriers as well as success factors relate to PEOPLE, hence the need to manage them

Slide52

Change Management

From the meaning of the two root words, change management can be explained as the process of developing a

planned approach

to change the

people

and the

organization

Slide53

Where should Change Management focus ?

Slide54

Slide55

Understanding the need for Change Management

Slide 55

People feel that it is risky to undertake any change.

Penalizing of mistakes and lack of incentive for change will lead to everyone preferring the status quo.

Staff resists change if the purpose of undertaking a specific change is not clear.

People are not clear about who are specifically involved in the change

May lack the knowledge, skills and experience to implement the proposed changes

Staff is not clear about their roles and responsibilities and may not see what they should do differently

Goal

Orientation

Lack of Communication

Procedure

Lack of Courage

Poor

Motivation

Proper Support

Involvement of Parties

Projects fail in absence of CM

Support from top in resources, knowhow, motivation are critical for smooth implementation of change

.

Slide56

Implementing Change Management – The Scope

Slide 56

Change ManagementStrategy

HR Strategy

Operational Strategy

Risk Mitigation Strategy

Communication Strategy

Capacity Building through training and exposure visits Incentive SchemesMentoring & Coaching SchemesAppraisal Workshops

Creating change management teams consisting of Change Leaders and Change Agents for every DivisionFollowing a phased approach for implementing the change management strategy

Identifying the risks involved Creating contingencies for handling risk

Creating Awareness

Organizing Promotional Campaigns

Identifying Chanels of delivery

Slide57

Phases of Transformation: Journey from caterpillar to butterfly involves different kinds of emotions

Complacency

Denial

Finger Pointing

Emotional Energy

Time

Outburst

Depression

Curiosity

Identification

Excitemen

t

Different emotions that people go through during times of ‘C

hange

Slide58

Successful outcomes are driven by timely and proactive change management

‘An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure

Time

Performance

Change Curve

:

ODR, Essentials of Change Management, 1999

Realisation

of Goal

Realisation of

Effort and

Complexity

With effective

and proactive

Change Management

Managed

Expectations

High

expectations

Disillusionment

Without

Change Management

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

Slide59

Change Management Plan

Slide60

Problem or opportunity

Planning

Design

Development

Implementation

O&M

Project Plan

Org. &

Change

Assessment

Team & Sponsors

Change Mgmt plan

Communication

Implement PlanRe-enforcing change

CM Plan

Seamless Integration required

Slide61

Change Management Framework

Capability and Skill Building

Phase I: Establishing Foundation for Change

Phase II: Managing Change

Phase III: Sustaining Change

Assess the environment, scale and scope for change

Define the Change Management Plan

Identify Key Stakeholders

Change Readiness Assessment – Need & Impact

Identify the enablers and disablers to change

Development and Implementation of Communication Strategy

Define performance metrics

Documentation, Monitoring and Evaluation

Corrective Action Plans

Stakeholder Assessment & Engagement Plan

Build the Change Management Team

Conduct Training Needs Analysis

Develop Training Plan

Slide62

Components of Change Management Plan

Understanding the vision and objective of the project

Defining the as-is state by documenting the existing:

Organizational structure (job profiles, people performing these tasks, roles and responsibilities of people, level of expertise and skill that they have, supporting staff and their roles)

Facilities, processes and methods used, functions performed, assigned resources

Identification and analysis of stakeholders

Identifying and categorizing stakeholders

Stakeholder analysis involving assessing the influence and importance of stakeholders

Slide63

4. Sizing of the change and its impactDocumenting the to-be scenario in terms of additional/changes in roles, responsibilities, processes; work pattern, time and effort, and behaviour of people delivering services; and required skills, technology and other resources.Documenting the key performance measures desired in the future state.Determining the gap/scale of change between the desired and actual statesAssessing the significance of this change

Components of Change Management Plan

Slide64

5. Understanding and assessing the organization and its people in terms of readiness/receptivity towards change. 6. Approach for CMSelecting the CM strategy/style.Planning the timing, speed, etc of implementing CMDesigning the organizational change management structureIdentifying change leaders and agents.7. Awareness and Communication plan

Components of Change Management Plan

Slide65

Cost towards Development of a Change Management StrategyCost towards Development of a Capacity Building PlanCost towards Development of Communications Management StrategyCost of Internal Government resources engaged for the above three streams of workCost of implementation of Change Management StrategyCost of implementation of Training plan Cost on ongoing TrainingsOngoing Communications CostCapacity Building cost

Slide 65

Cost Implications of Change Management

Cost factors to be considered in an e-Governance project

Slide66

1.Cost towards Development of a Change Management Strategy1.1 Project and Program Management Cost – Cost of tools and templates1.2 Change Program Design Cost1.3 Consultant Professional fees1.4 Cost of lodging and boarding1.5Cost of Assessment of the existing capability & Gap Analysis – Cost of tools used1.6Total number of workshops / interviews to be completed and their locations1.7Cost of awareness workshops – educating the employees on the need for change

Slide 66

Cost Implications in the Design Phase

Slide67

Slide 67

2.

Cost towards Development of a Capacity Building Plan

2.

The total cost incurred on training would be primarily around three factors:

Total number

of

Training Man-days, Trainers Cost and Training Infrastructure and Logistics cost.

2.1

Total number

of

Training Man-days

Training for identified officials leading the change management program

Training for users of IT Systems in Government Departments

General IT training to existing employees

Training for External Users of Government IT Systems

Awareness program and educating

end users viz. citizens

2.2

Trainers Cost

Trainers Fees

Cost of travelling, boarding and lodging

Training material development cost

2.3

Training Infrastructure and Logistics cost

Cost of IT and Physical

Infrastructure, S

tationary cost

e-Learning portal

and content

development cost

Cost

of conducting webinars, seminars

Set up cost of a training institute - Infrastructure cost, Faculty cost, Logistics cost , Hiring cost etc.

Slide68

3.Cost towards Development of Communications Management Strategy3.1Cost towards media and publicity to create awareness– News papers, Television , Community / FM Radio, PR agency cost, Internet, vernacular press etc. 3.2Cost of conducting awareness campaigns and workshops for employees within the department3.3Cost of awareness workshops for other departments and interfaces3.4Cost of conducting awareness campaign for citizens 3.5Cost towards conducting road shows

Slide 68

4.

Cost of Internal Government resources engaged for the above three streams of work

4.1

Opportunity Cost of Leadership / Top Government officials involvement in all phases

4.2

Opportunity cost

for senior officials involvement in planning, design and implementation phase

4.3

Opportunity

Cost of staff

involvement

in change management activities

4.3

Travel

, Stay and other miscellaneous cost

Slide69

5.Cost of implementation of Change Management Strategy5.1Opportunity cost of Internal Resource Deployment 5.2Consultant Cost – Fees, Travel and other expenses

Slide 69

Capacity building under NeGP – Change Management

Cost Implications During Implementation phase

6.

Cost of implementation of Training plan

6.1

Cost of Consultants for

on going program management support

/ Retainer ship fees

6.2

Cost of training to be provided by the change management consultant

6.3

Cost of training provided by the IT vendor on

product usage/administration/maintenance related training

6.4

Cost of training provided by other training / academic institutions

Slide70

7.Cost on ongoing Trainings7.1Cost of Refresher Programs 7.2Recurring cost on Training institute – Rents/Expenses on Building, Salaries, Utilities, etc.7.3Training material cost

Slide 70

Cost Implications Post Implementation

8.Ongoing Communication Costs8.1Awareness and Education Program cost for each quarter – Cost of media channels8.2Setting up internal Communication Infrastructure

9.

Capacity

Building cost

9.1

Hiring cost – On the basis of the new profile of employees required for e-governance, new sources of their availability need to be tapped.

9.2

Cost of developing performance

metrics to track and monitor change

9.3

Cost of corrective actions initiated

Slide71

Types of Change

Evolutionary

Change

Revolutionary Change

Unplanned Change

Planned

Change

Slide72

Types of Reactions to Organizational Change

Slide73

Managing Change

I’m not Aware!

I’m afraid of using this

Not Relevant 4 me!

Who will Help me?

Nobody asks us!

I don’t have time 4 this

Conduct workshops and meetings to sensitize the change;

Re-frame the way that workplaces are organized, to provide flexibility and time for reflection and innovation

Increase participation of stakeholders in designing services, workflows, screens, layouts and components

Communicate benefits of Change & reasons of change to the grass root; Convince user to buy the change

Provide easy, accessible and convenient support and guidance

Develop user confidence; Share outputs; Adapt rules and policies accordingly

How to use this?

Conduct trainings to build capacity; Develop user friendly solution

Slide74

Drivers of Change

Status Quo

External Pressures

Poor Performance

Internal Pressure

Slide75

External Pressures

Changes introduced by

Change brought about by political or economic circumstances

Changes in marketplace perceptions

Technological Change

Slide76

Poor Performance

Not able to control costs within set budget

Failing to achieve output targets

Increasing customer/citizen complaints

Slide77

Internal Pressure

Operational processes are inconvenient

Old infrastructure not with the time

Policy Changes

Specific individuals, or groups of employees

Others

Slide78

We can’t control change…

But we

can control our

attitude

towards change…

Slide79

5 reasonswhy peopleresist change

Slide

79

Slide80

Reason # 1

The person is, in general, against or negative towards all that is new or different

Slide

80

Slide81

How many times you heard such arguments ? !! We just don’t have time for that. We don’t have enough resources to do that. Do we really need it? It’s much too risky. We have already discussed something similar a long time ago. Forget it. Please talk to Debajit about it. It’s not my area. I am quite sure, it wouldn’t work. The company is not ready for that at this point. It sounds good theoretically, but it would never work in practice. We are too big / too small. It’s too early / too late for that.

Slide

81

Slide82

Reason # 2

The person is not interested in the idea / the change. He/she has other goals, that he/she wants to pursue

Slide

82

Slide83

Reason # 3

The person does not understand the messageand/or the consequences that the change will haveon his/her work situation

Slide

83

Slide84

The person does not trust the person who communicatesthe change initiative

Reasons # 4

Slide

84

Slide85

Reason # 5Fear

Slide

85

Slide86

Fear

Fear of losing money, for example reductionin salary and/or budget

Fear of losingpower, control, status

Fear of losingassignments

Fear of losingnetwork and/orsocial traditions

Slide

86

Slide87

Fear

Fear of not havingcompetences to unlearn old habits

Fear of not beinginvolved in thechange process

Fear of being involved in thechange process

Fear of not havingcompetences to learn new things

Slide

87

Slide88

What can you do to deal with change?

Slide

88

Slide89

Slide 89

What can you do to deal with change?

Accept that change is an attitude issue

Create a personal vision

Focus on what you can do………not on what you can’t do

Develop a perspective of opportunity

Create a willingness to learn & develop

Learn to love ambiguity

Slide90

A Tool for assessing level of Change Readiness & Managing Change

ADKAR Model

© 2006

Prosci

Individual / Departmental level

Slide91

ADKAR

consists of five phases that occur when change impacts

us

Awareness

of the need for change

(why).

Desire

to support and participate in the change

(our choice).

Knowledge

about how to change

(the learning process).

Ability

to implement the change

(turning knowledge into action).

Reinforcement

to sustain the change

(celebrating success).

Slide92

Awareness of the need for change. The nature of the change. Why is the change happening? What is the risk of not changing?

The ADKAR Model

Slide93

Make a compelling case for Change & Risks of not changing - Supported by reports, data, facts

Q. Are you certain that most (if not all) critical stakeholders see – and feel - a compelling need to change?

A ‘stakeholder’ is anyone who may be impacted by the effort and/or anyone who can impact the success of the

effort

Slide94

The ADKAR Model

Desire

to support the change.

Personal motivation to support the change.

Organizational drivers to support the change.

Slide95

Knowledge on how to change. Understanding how to change. The details of what to do. Training

The ADKAR Model

Slide96

Ability to implement new skills. Demonstrated ability to implement the change.

The ADKAR Model

Slide97

Reinforcement to sustain the change. Recognition, rewards, incentives, realized benefits.

The ADKAR Model

Slide98

Pearls of Wisdom !

To grow you must adapt yourself to the NEW ORDER, or you remain vulnerable and unhappy in the unfamiliar zone. No one can change the inevitable. Accepting this wisdom saves undue frustration and misery

 

Slide99

Pearls of Wisdom !

 

Continuity gives us roots--change gives us branches allowing us to grow and  reach new heights  

 

Slide100

Pearls of Wisdom !

 

We cannot change anything unless we accept it

Carl Jung

Slide101

A

21st century

Organisation would keep

the

functions and businesses

running smoothly through the change process ,

balancing

the need for

radical change

with the necessity for

continuity

Are you ready ?

Slide102

Techniques for Communication & Awareness Strategy

Slide103

Techniques of Group Thinking

Slide104

Convergent Thinking

Follows a particular set of logical steps to arrive at one "correct" solutionTechniques include:PrioritizationAssessment & evaluationMulti-votingPICK chartsPUGH matrix6 Thinking Hats

Divergent Thinking

Spontaneous, free-flowing generation of many ideas in a random, unorganized fashionTechniques include:ExplorationBrainstormingOut-of-the-Box thinkingThe ideas generated by divergent thinking are organized and structured using divergent thinking

Techniques of Group Thinking

Slide105

Divergent Thinking - Brainstorming

Phase I – Idea generation phaseNo criticismNo constraint (allow wild ideas)Build on others ideasEncourage participationPhase II – Understanding phaseIdea originator to describe the idea in detail to develop common understanding

Phase III – Grouping phaseSeek clarification on points, if neededGroup similar ideas & short-listIV – Evaluation phaseDiscuss merits of each idea

Do not forget to appoint a facilitator for the session Plan sufficient time for the session

Brain-storming is a group exercise to generate, clarify and evaluate a large number of creative ideas & solutions

Slide106

Using brainstorming….

The Brainstorming technique was developed in

1941 by an advertising executive called Alex Osborn in the US

. He originally used the term “think up” which was later modified to “brainstorming”.

Brainstorming is defined as “a conference technique by which a group attempts to find a solution for a specific problem by amassing all the ideas spontaneously by its members".

Brainstorm means

using the

brain

to

storm

a creative problem

and to do so in commando fashion, each

stormer

audaciously attacking the same objective.

Brainstorming is a tool for generating as many ideas or solutions as possible to a problem or issue

Creativity is encouraged by not allowing ideas to be evaluated or discussed until everyone has run dry. Any and all ideas are considered legitimate and often the most far-fetched are the most fertile.

Slide107

Doing a brainstorming session

Step 1: Prepare for the session

Step 2: Agree on ground-rules

Step 3: Conduct the brainstorming session

Step 4: Decide criteria for evaluation of ideas generated

Step 5: Evaluate all ideas generated against criteria

Step 6: Select the best ideas for implementation

Slide108

Step 1: Preparing for a brainstorming session

Who will lead or facilitate the brainstorming session?

Who will participate in the brainstorming session?

Who can write

very

quickly to record the brainstormed ideas without slowing down the group?

Where will the brainstorming session be held?

What materials are needed for brainstorming (easel, paper, white board, pens, etc.)?

What is the brainstorming session’s desired outcome?

Slide109

Step 2: Agreeing on ground-rules

.

Before beginning a brainstorming session, ground-rules must be set. There are no dumb ideas. Period. It's a brainstorming session, not a serious matter that requires only serious solutions. Remember, this is one of the more fun tools of quality, so keep the entire team involved!

Don't criticize other people's ideas. This isn't a debate, discussion or forum for one person to display superiority over another.

Build on other people's ideas. Often an idea suggested by one person can trigger a bigger and/or better idea or a variation of an idea by another person. It is this building of ideas that leads to out of the box thinking and fantastic ideas.

Reverse the thought of 'quality over quantity.' Here we want quantity; the more creative ideas the better

.

Slide110

Step 3: Conduct the brainstorming session

Define the problem/phenomenon/issue concisely and

make sure that everyone understands the problem

and is in agreement with the way it is worded. There is no need to put a lot of restrictions on the problem at this time

Give everyone a few seconds to jot down a few ideas before getting started

Begin by going around the table or room, giving everyone a chance to voice their ideas or pass. After a few rounds, open the floor

Note down all ideas exactly as they are being said

Don't stop until ideas become sparse. Allow for late-coming ideas.

Remove duplicate ideas

Slide111

Step 4: Decide criteria for evaluation of ideas

Criteria should start with the word "should

, for example,

"it should be cost effective",

"it should be legal",

"it should be possible to finish before March 31", etc.

Criteria can be qualitative as well as quantitative

Choose the top 9 criteria for evaluation of various ideas

Slide112

Step 5: Evaluate the ideas and prioritize for execution

Each idea can be prioritized based on criteria on varied scalesHigh – 9Medium – 3Low – 1

Criteria 1

Criteria 2

Criteria

3

Score

Weights

30%

50%

20%

Idea 1

9

3

1

4.4

Idea 2

1

1

3

1.4

Idea 3

9

9

3

7.8

Slide113

Convergent thinking technique – PICK Chart

PICK chartsA PICK chart helps a team to organize & prioritize its ideas & solutions by separating them into four categories in 2 x 2 matrix on the basis of expected benefits and ease of implementationThe ideas can be categorized into Implement, Challenge, Possible & Kill

IMPLEMENT

POSSIBLE

KILL

CHALLENGE

LOW

HIGH

EXPECTED BENEFITS

EASE OF IMPLEMENTATION

Slide114

Convergent thinking technique – PUGH Matrix

PUGH matrix

The PUGH matrix is a technique to select an appropriate solution from a set of ideas or solutions based on given criteria

Each potential idea or solution is given “+”, “-” or “S” depending on whether it is better, worse or same as the base-line situation... the solution having the highest net Score is selected

Slide115

The PUGH Matrix is a technique to select a candidate solution from a set of solutions based on a given criteria

CriteriaWeightBaseline“As Is”“To Be” option 1“To Be” option 2“To Be” option 3Customer satisfaction50S++-Cost30SS-SManpower flexibility10S+S+Training difficulty10S-++CountsCount of + ves0222Count of “S” 4111Count of - ves0111TotalsSum of weighted + ves606020Sum of weighted – ves103050NET SCORE5030-30

Each candidate is given +, - or S depending on whether it is better, worse or same as the base line solution. The solution having the highest Net Score is selected

Slide116

Convergent Thinking Technique – 6 Thinking Hats

6 Thinking Hats

This technique promotes parallel thinking to assess each alternative from various dimensions

White Hat

Yellow Hat

Black Hat

Red Hat

Green Hat

Blue Hat

Slide117

Parallel thinking is often superior than spaghetti thinking….

White Hat — search for information related to the subject.Yellow Hat — search for benefits, values, and reasons to be optimistic about the subject.Black Hat — search for faults, problems, and dangers related to the subject.Red Hat — signify feelings, hunches, and intuitions about the subject.Green Hat — search for creative alternatives and solutions related to the subject.Blue Hat — organize and summarize.

Slide118

Piyush Gupta

There

are no uninteresting things,

      There are only uninterested

people

Slide119

To

improve

is to change,

to be

perfect

is to change often

-

Winston Churchill

Slide120

Thanks for your patient hearing

Slide121

Slide122


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