Challenges to Soviet Control

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At the end of WWII, the Red Army occupied most of Eastern Europe.. Almost immediately, harsh measures were put in place. . Communist regimes were established and Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain.. ID: 560710 Download Presentation

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Challenges to Soviet Control

At the end of WWII, the Red Army occupied most of Eastern Europe.. Almost immediately, harsh measures were put in place. . Communist regimes were established and Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain..

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Challenges to Soviet Control




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Presentation on theme: "Challenges to Soviet Control"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Challenges to Soviet Control

Slide2

At the end of WWII, the Red Army occupied most of Eastern Europe.

Almost immediately, harsh measures were put in place. Communist regimes were established and Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain.

People were repressed of their freedoms. They could not speak freely about their leaders, they could not travel wherever they wanted, they could not buy many products from the West and they often faced food shortages and unemployment. This unit is about what the Soviet Union did during the Cold War to prevent these states from breaking free from Soviet Control.

Slide3

Satellite State: East Germany in 1953.

Nature of Challenge:

Soviet Reaction:

East Germans rose up in revolt against Soviet control.

Soviets embarrassed. Red Army used to suppress riots.

Slide4

Consequences:

Western Reaction:

US called a meeting (Four powers). Used radio broadcasts to encourage East Germans to keep protesting. (Radio Free Europe)

Repression continued. The idea of

a friendly neutral Germany was abandoned.

Slide5

Satellite State:

Nature of Challenge:

Soviet Reaction:

Poland 1956

Workers revolted and outlawed Polish Communist leader Gomulka was brought back as leader without Khrushchev’s approval. Started making rapid changes.

Khrushchev concerned Gomulka would leave Warsaw Pact. Threatened to invade Poland. Gomulka promised not to leave Pact..

Slide6

Consequences:

Western Reaction:

Improved Polish relations with US.

Gomulka was Pro-American.

Freedoms that Gomulka had given the Polish people were gradually taken away. Riots spread to Hungary.

Slide7

Satellite State:

Nature of Challenge:

Soviet Reaction:

Hungary 1956

Riots and protests in Hungary. New leader Nagy announces Hungary would leave Warsaw Pact.

Red Army is sent in. Thousands of people die. New leader installed in Hungary. Nagy executed.

Slide8

Consequences:

Western Reaction:

No military action. UN Sent committee to investigate but Soviet Union ignored them.

Detente was weakened.

Khrushchev’s position strengthened.

Slide9

Satellite State:

Nature of Challenge:

Soviet Reaction:

Czechoslovakia 1968

Prague Spring – Dubcek made changes that threatened Soviet control.

Troops sent it. Red Army re-established control.

Slide10

Consequences:

Western Reaction:

Nothing.

Brezhnev Doctrine – The Soviet Union would use force to keep countries in Warsaw Pact or Communist.

Slide11

Satellite State:

Nature of Challenge:

Soviet Reaction:

Poland 1980

Solidarity – trade union with 10 million members threatened Soviet control.

New leader put in place, declared Martial Law, Soviet Union threatened to invade.

Slide12

Consequences:

Western Reaction:

The United States continued to support Solidarity, bought them radios to communicate with.

Weakened Détente.

Slide13

Satellite State:

Nature of Challenge:

Soviet Reaction:

Afghanistan 1979

Afghanistan’s Communist government is collapsing.

Soviets fear spread of fundamental Islam and American influence.

Soviet Union

invades Afghanistan.

Brezhnev Doctrine justified invasion.

Slide14

Consequences:

Western Reaction:

Carter Doctrine - US pledged to intervene in the Persian Gulf if threatened by Soviets.

Americans provided mujahedin with weapons.

Détente broke down. Start of Second Cold War.

The Soviet Afghan war was the Soviet Union’s Viet Nam.

Slide15

By what methods and with what results did the USSR impose control on Eastern Europe 1945 -1956?

- salami tactics, secret police, censorship of press, travel restrictions, social and ideological controls, suppression of religious freedom, political purgess, military presence of Soviet troops.

- Red Army was used to stop protests in East Germany, Hungary.

- In Poland, pressure was placed on Gomulka to stay in Warsaw.

Slide16

Assess the importance of social and economic issues in causing opposition to communist regimes.