The Fall of the Soviet Union

The Fall of the Soviet Union - Description

1968 - 1991. Reagan’s speech at Brandenburg gate – June 12, 1987. https://. www.youtube.com/watch?v=WjWDrTXMgF8. – Reagan’s speech at Brandenburg gate, 1987. From . S. talin to Khrushchev. Stalin died May 3, 1953. ID: 635100 Download Presentation

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The Fall of the Soviet Union

1968 - 1991. Reagan’s speech at Brandenburg gate – June 12, 1987. https://. www.youtube.com/watch?v=WjWDrTXMgF8. – Reagan’s speech at Brandenburg gate, 1987. From . S. talin to Khrushchev. Stalin died May 3, 1953.

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The Fall of the Soviet Union




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Presentation on theme: "The Fall of the Soviet Union"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

The Fall of the Soviet Union

1968 - 1991

Slide2

Reagan’s speech at Brandenburg gate – June 12, 1987

https://

www.youtube.com/watch?v=WjWDrTXMgF8

– Reagan’s speech at Brandenburg gate, 1987

Slide3

Slide4

From S

talin to Khrushchev

Stalin died May 3, 1953

Khrushchev denounced Stalin’s “administrative violence, terror,

and

repression” and began de-Stalinization program – close Siberian labor camps

Ironically, sent tanks and troops into Hungary (1956) to crush democratic revoltsVoted out of office in 1964 by Politburo

Slide5

Leonid Brezhnev – general Secretary of Politburo –

1966-1982

Brezhnev doctrine

Invasion of Czechoslovakia (1968)

A

lexander Dubcek introduced reforms called the “Prague Spring” – introduced freedom of speech/ press, freedom to travel abroad, relaxed secret police

Slide6

Détente – 1970’s

Period of cooperation from 1970-1979

Example :

SALT I

(

S

trategic Arms Limitation Treaty) – limited defensive anti-ballistic missiles

U.S.A. refused to sign SALT II (1979) and USSR invaded Afghanistan – Détente weakening

Ronald Reagan – US President (1980-1988) – called USSR “evil empire”; began SDI (“Star Wars” proposal); DÉTENTE OVER!

Slide7

Soviet Dissent

Soviet Jews petition to immigrate to Israel to escape anti-Semitism

Most dissenters among educated elite in USSR

Andrei Sakharov – sentenced to life in exile in 1980; released in 1986

Alexander

Solzhenistsyn

– novelist, T

he Gulag Archipelago

Most want civil liberties, democratic rights

Samizdat – chief means of dissenter communication

Slide8

Gorbachev’s Reforms (1985-1991)

Perestroika

-

political and economic “restructuring”

Glasnost – openness;

Soviets encouraged to discuss

openly strengths/ weaknesses of USSR; published in PRAVDA – Communist newspaper

Slide9

Problems with Soviet Economy

Line for Shoes in USSR

Inadequate Soviet housing

Slide10

Basic Economic Problems

Salaries fairly good

Problem: purchasing power exceeded supplies/ goods

Failing state system of production

Solution? Price controls – led to poor quality

Slide11

Gorby’s democratization plan

Congress of People’s Deputies (1988)

1989 – 1

st

free elections since 1917

Legalized formation of political parties – threat to Communists!

March 1990 – Gorby was USSR’s first PresidentBoris Yeltsin – elected as President of Russian Republic 1990

Boris

Yeltsin

Slide12

Fall of Gorby

/ Yeltsin in Power

Gorbachev taken prisoner August 1991 by conservative communist hard-liners

Tens of thousands protest coup

Yeltsin persuaded Red Army to return

Gorby

to Moscow

Slide13

Economic challenges

Uncontrollable inflation

Russian “mafia” – new business leaders

Trade/ businesses rely on American dollars

Russian ruble practically worthless – avg. monthly salary $140

Opening of 1

st

McDonald’s in Moscow, 1990

Slide14

Nationalities problem

102 separate minorities in 1979 census; 22 w/ 1 million people

Why? Gorbachev’s openness (Glasnost)

3 problems areas – Baltics, Central Asia (“

Stans

”), Armenia

Slide15

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

Slide16

The Putin Era

1999- Yeltsin “resigned” – replaced by Putin

Former

KGB

member (intelligence gathering organization)

Centralize control in gov’t hands

Reforms – 2001Unrestricted land sale and purchase

Tax cuts – budget revenue

Controlled media to silence critics

Result?

High economic growth, unemployment and poverty fell

Slide17

Dmitry Medvedev

Elected in 2008

Putin became Prime Minster and 2 have shared power

Medvedev NOW Prime Minster and Putin is President AGAIN

Slide18