Cold War The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan

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1979 - 1989. Causes:. Soviet Union had historical presence in Afghanistan. Communist government was struggling to maintain control due to strong opposition by the Afghans. Soviets wanted to keep communist influence in area. ID: 748801 Download Presentation

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Cold War The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan

1979 - 1989. Causes:. Soviet Union had historical presence in Afghanistan. Communist government was struggling to maintain control due to strong opposition by the Afghans. Soviets wanted to keep communist influence in area.

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Cold War The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan




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Cold War

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The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan

1979 - 1989

Causes:

Soviet Union had historical presence in Afghanistan. Communist government was struggling to maintain control due to strong opposition by the AfghansSoviets wanted to keep communist influence in area

What happened and who:Soviets sent 100,000 troops to invade and regain controlMujahidin (Afghan resistance fighters that were multi-national insurgence groups trained by various countries) performed guerilla warfare to fight the SovietsUS supplied large amounts of money and weapons to support MujahidinSoviets destroyed the Afghan country (villages, crops and water sources) because the rural population were helping the Mujahidin; caused millions to die or flee to surrounding countriesWeapons supplied by the US severely hindered the Soviet air attacks, Arab world supplied funds to help fight the Soviets and the United Nations pressured Soviets to withdraw

Outcome:Thousands of Soviet troops were killed and ultimately Soviets were forced to leave; millions of Afghans were killed or displacedAfghanistan as a country was destroyed; general governing infrastructure no longer exists; Afghanistan became a haven for terrorists; there is only a weak government present with multiple groups continuing to fight for controlThis was a proxy war between US and Soviet Union; US involvement was to limit the spread of communismNATO and Warsaw pact were not directly involved during this warConsidered victory for Capitalism because Communism was overthrown

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Greek Civil War

Summary :

Two Greek forces worked together to resist the occupation of Greece by Germany. The “National Popular Liberation Army” who were communist, and the “Greek Democratic National Army”. After the German withdrawal in October of 1944, the British helped the Communist Party set up a new provisional government for Greece which quickly disintegrated with the communist members refusing to disband their guerrilla forces.Once the Communist guerrilla forces accepted defeat after a short civil war that was suppressed by the British, a general election was held and reinstated the royalist majority and restored the Greek king in 1946.During 1946, another guerrilla war was opened by the communists that had gone under ground. The British couldn’t support the demand of the Greeks, so the commitment to defending Greece was taken on by the United States. The support from the U.S. was greatly needed because by the end of 1947 the communists had proclaimed a provisional government in the “northern mountains”. This second communist rebellion lasted until 1949, when the U.S. successfully supplied a new strengthened Greece that was able to clear the communists from the mountains. Individuals Involved:Commanders and historic leaders. Alexander Papagos

, Konstantinos Ventiris, Ronald Scobie, James Van Fleet, Markos Vafiadis, and Nikolaos Zachariadis. Outcomes:On October 16th, 1949, the Greek communists broadcasted the end of open hostility and the majority of the remaining communist members fled to the adjacent country, Albania. There were about 50,000 deaths and 500,000 Greeks were temporarily moved away from their homes due to the fighting. The civil war left many tensions between the groups in the Greek population because of the strife, death and brutality of the war. By: Bolin Mahaffey

Causes:

The occupation of Greece by German troops.

The tensions between the Democratic and Communist Parties

The influences from Britain and the United States

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Cuban Revolution

July 26, 1953- January 1, 1959

After Fidel Castro’s rebellion against Fulgencio Batista, he began expanding his Communist form of government to the Cuban people. Members of the communist party and Catholic Church supported the change in leadership. Castro insisted on Soviet Union assistance, due to United States’ alienation of military troops. The Soviet Union was closer in proximity to their enemy, so they deployed artillery, fighter jets, tanks, and soldiers; bringing the Cold War to a new hemisphere. Attempting to invade Cuba at the Bay of Pigs, 1961; President Kennedy’s forces were annihilated by Soviet troops.Causes:Castro’s desire to overthrow dictator Fulgencio Batista. Cuban nationalization of US petroleum.Eisenhower’s economic sanctions 1960: Soviet Union’s assistance to Cuba.December 1961: Castro declared himself a Marxist-Leninist.Outcomes:Soviet Communist victory, weakened United Sates as a global power.Led to revolts in the US embassies in New Delhi, Cairo, and Tokyo.

Was not an example of a proxy war, both USA and USSR deployed military troops to Cuba.USSR began sending missiles to Cuba.NATO/Warsaw Pact was not involved.Resulted in USSR victory on sending first manned orbital in space.Created by: Anna Skelly

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Cuban Revolution

1953-1959

Causes:

U.S supported Fulgencio Batista, but he was unpopular with the Cubans and was ineffective. This led for Castro to want to overthrow him.Fidel CastroSummary: Castro wanted to overthrow Bastista and was successful when Bastista fled to the Dominican Republic in 1959. U.S eventually stopped sending Cuba supplies, so they went to the Soviet Union for aid. The Soviets would now have a foothold near the U.S. To wanted to overthrow Bastista and was successful when

Bastista fled to the Dominican Republic in 1959. U.S eventually stopped sending Cuba supplies, so they went to the Soviet Union for aid. The Soviets would now have a foothold near the U.S. To counter this, the Americans snuck in spies to carry out a surprise air strike. President Kennedy then launched the battle Bay of Pigs, which to the U.S’s surprise, failed when the Cuban’s overwhelmed them. a surprise air strike. President Kennedy then launched the battle Bay of Pigs, which to the U.S’s surprise, failed when the Cuban’s overwhelmed them. Outcomes: U.S cut diplomatic relations with Cuba and other Latin American countries rallied against America. Soviets sent missiles to Cuba which leads up to the Cuban Missile Crisis.Proxy War: NoNATO/Warsaw Pact: NoVictory for: Communism

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Prague Spring

Jan. 5, 1968 – Aug. 21, 1968

The Prague Spring of 1968 was a period of time when the Czechoslovakian government, led by Alexander Dubcek, strived to democratize the nation and lessen the influence of the USSR. Dubcek initialized a program to amend the Czech constitution and reduce the totalitarian aspects of the Communist Party. Along with these amendments also came reduced censorship.

The Prague Spring reforms were a cause of deep economic recession initiated by imposed Russian totalitarian policies.

Involved in these changes were Czechoslovakia, Russia, and briefly other countries involved in the Warsaw Pact such as Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Bulgaria. Although initiated by Russia, the ensuing conflict was not a proxy war.In response to Dubcek’s reforms, troops from the Warsaw Pact invaded Czechoslovakia to reassert authority, capturing Dubcek and ending the program, resulting in a Communistic victory. This thwarted attempt at revolution lead to long-term Communistic influence in Czechoslovakia.

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Overthrow of the Guatemalan Government

1954

Causes: The U.S. wanted to prevent the spread of communism to the west.

Jacobo Arbez Guzman, leader of Guatemala was considered a danger to U.S. national security because of his communist ideals, and the U.S. wanted to overthrow him.

President Eisenhower was determined to get rid of Arbez, so the program, PBSUCCESS, was made to depose of him. The CIA set up troops outside of Guatemala in Honduras and Nicaragua, and after a year of preparation, on June 18, 1954 they invaded Guatemala intending on overthrowing Arbez. He Resigned as President, and fled to Mexico. Castillo Armas became the new president.Outcomes: After the success of PBSUCCESS Guatemala faced years of instability and civil war. The new president, Armas, disenfranchised illiterate voters, outlawed political parties, labor unions, and peasant organizations. PBSUCCESS became a model for future CIA actions in the future in the region.The Guatemalan Civil War, which resulted after the overthrowing of Arbez is an example of a proxy war.Warsaw Pact was made in 1955, after this event had occurredThe overthrowing of Arbez was a victory for the U.S., for they had succeeded in preventing the spread of communism

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Cuban Missile Crisis

September 1962 – October 26

th

1962Causes: The United States had nuclear weapons near the Soviet Union, so the USSR wanted to level the playing field by placing some in the US’s proximity. In September 1962, President Kennedy received intel that the soviet union was installing nuclear missiles in Cuba. The United States then placed a naval blockade around Cuba to prevent them from receiving any more weapons from the Soviet Union. On October 26

th, the US and the USSR made an agreement that the US would not invade Cuba and would dismantle their nuclear missiles in Turkey as long as the USSR removed the missiles from Cuba.Countries involved: United States, Cuba, Soviet UnionOutcomes:1) The two sides established a direct communications link that became known as The two sides established a direct communications link that became known as the Hot Line. 2) A Test Ban Treaty was signed between the two countries in August 1963. The treaty prohibited the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere.The Soviet Union became determined to have a nuclear capability that was equal to the United States, which was achieved in 1972. Proxy war? NoNATO/Warsaw Pact? NoVictory for whom? More of a stalemate with no winner

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Postwar Division of Germany

(January 1943-August 2, 1945)

After German forces surrendered, a series of treaties and agreements were made among the allies to divide Germany. Initially, in Casablanca, Winston Churchill’s proposal for Balkan invasion was denied, which opened up the way for Soviet influence in East Germany. In the Tehran conference, official division of Germany was discussed. Finally in Yalta, Germany was split into four zones, each for one allied power. In Potsdam, Stalin was able to win more land for the Soviet zone. After the Potsdam conference, the ACC was formed among the allied powers as a sort of order for Germany. This union led to turmoil among the allies. France tried to gain resources from Germany, and the U.S. and British zones were merged into one Bi-zone.

Outcomes: Soviet influence in East Germany. Conflicts eventually leading to the Cold war between U.S. and Soviet Union. Split of East and West Germany. The Western Bi-zone of the U.S and Britain and the Eastern Soviet zone divided Germany.

This event was not an example of a Proxy war.Neither NATO nor The Warsaw Pact were involved in this event.This event was a victory for Capitalism initially, as 3 of the 4 German zones were occupied by Capitalist powers, with the last zone occupied by Soviet Russia, a major Socialist power.Causes: German violence in WW2, German surrender, Allied powers wanted to keep Germany peaceful, so they decided to divide it among themselves.

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Marshall Plan

April 3, 1948-1952

Causes: Europe had been devastated by warfare and violence, leaving it in ruins. The United States was one of the only world powers not significantly damaged compared to

Europeon nations, which led them to offer Europe aid.U.S president Harry Truman appointed George Marshall, a successful figure during WWII, to Secretary of State in 1947. In an attempt to reconsruct the nations of Europe, Marshall, George Kennan, and William Clayton constructed the Marshall Plan. The Marshall Plan detailed plans to rebuild Europeon economic struture to help restore politcal stability as well as prevent the spread of communism. Almost $13 billion in aid was given to Europeon nations.Outcomes: Nations supported by the Marshall Plan were very positively affected by the Marshall Plan. The economic prosperity caused by the Marshall Plan eventually led to the creation of the Europeon Union.The Marshall Plan was not a proxy war. NATO and the Warsaw pact were not involved.It was a victory for capitalism because success of capitalist nations helped challenge the power communism had over Europe.

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Tiananmen Square Massacre

June 3

rd

-4th, 1989

Causes- The death of Hu Yaobang, an incorruptible government leader, caused widespread grieving and protest over corruption of party leadershipProxy War-NoNATO/Warsaw Pact- NoVictory for CommunismAfter weeks of university students, factory workers, pro-democracy reformists, and Beijing residents protesting the Communist party of China and the government, the People’s Liberation Army received permission to fire upon the demonstrators on June 3rd . Between 241-2600 people were killed, and 7,000-10,000 were wounded. As a result of the protesting, media control tightened, the Democracy movement was halted, and Western nations placed economic sanctions and arms embargoes on China.

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