Style Lesson 3: Actions PowerPoint Presentation

Style Lesson 3: Actions PowerPoint Presentation

2017-07-17 49K 49 0 0

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This chapter focuses on VERBS . Sentences are stories. Williams suggests that writers think of sentences as stories with characters (subjects) and actions (verbs).. Important definitions. Simple subject. ID: 570730

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Presentations text content in Style Lesson 3: Actions

Slide1

Style Lesson 3: Actions

This chapter focuses on VERBS

Slide2

Sentences are stories

Williams suggests that writers think of sentences as stories with characters (subjects) and actions (verbs).

Slide3

Important definitions

Simple subject

Whole subject

Character

Action

Verb

The evidence that you offer is not reliable.

Slide4

Subject verb = character action

Back in elementary school, we learned that the subject of the sentence was the doer of an action and the verb of a sentence was the action.

Jane jumps. = subject verb (

doer/character

action)

Slide5

Nouns

But the doer

(character) isn’t always

the subject of a sentence. Any noun

can

be the subject of the sentence.

Jane’s jumping went on and on.

Jumping went = subject verb

Jane is the

doer (or character)

but jumping is the subject of the sentence.

Slide6

Verbs

The

main action isn’t always the main verb

of a sentence. Often the action has been changed into a

noun.

Jane’s jumping went on and on.

Jumps becomes

jumping and went becomes the main verb of the sentence.

Slide7

Back to elementary school

Williams suggests we return to the idea

that doers=subjects

and important actions=verbs.

Even complex academic prose will be more clear and more powerful if we make doers (what Williams calls characters) the subjects of our sentences and if we make actions the verbs of our sentences.

Slide8

Principle 1

Make your main character the subject of your sentence.

More on this principle in Lesson

4

Slide9

Principle 2

Make the important actions the verbs of your sentence

.

The director completed

a review

of the data.

Vs

.

The directed

reviewed

the data.

Slide10

Nominalizations

First drafts often have important actions as nouns

Often this action

has been changed into a

noun.

Nominalization

(or

nounialization

)

is a noun derived from an action.

(It is

also

a noun derived from an adjective.

Careless

becomes

carelessness

. More on this

problem in Lesson4.)

Slide11

Nominalizations

Actions

become

nouns

:

Discover

becomes

discovery

.

Resist

becomes

resistance

.

React

becomes

reaction

.

Slide12

Nominalizations

Character + actions

become nouns (gerund

):

She

flies

becomes

her flying

.

We

sing

becomes

our singing

.

Slide13

Nominalization

Some

verbs are, without any change, positioned as nouns

:

Hope (verb) becomes hope (noun)

Result (verb) becomes result (noun)

Repair (verb) becomes repair (noun)

Slide14

The outsourcing of high-tech work to Asia by corporations means the loss of jobs for many Americans.

What is the simple subject and verb of this sentence?

Slide15

The outsourcing of high-tech work to Asia by corporations means the loss of jobs for many Americans.

Ignoring introductory phrases, underline the first eight words in a sentence.

a) Do you have an abstract noun (especially a nominalization) as the simple subject?

b) Do you have 6 or 7 words before you get to a verb?

“Yes

” means your sentence may need revising.

Slide16

The outsourcing of high-tech work to Asia by corporations means the loss of jobs for many Americans.

Decide who your main characters are

Decide what actions these main characters perform (look especially to those nominalizations, those actions that became nouns)

Slide17

Main characters: corporations, AmericansActions of these characters: outsource, loose

New sentence parts:

1. Corporations

outsource high-tech work to Asia

2. Many

Americans loose jobs

3

) Use conjunctions (because, if, when, although, why, how, whether, that, since, so long as, provided that) to make the logic of the relationships clear

Slide18

Practice

The problem was the topic of

our discussion

.

Slide19

Patterns to watch for

Nominalizations with “empty verbs” or “bland verbs” such as to be (is, are, were) to seem, to have, to do

Nominalizations following “There is” and “There are”

Multiple nominalizations in a sentence

Slide20

The results of making actions the verb of the sentence:

Your sentences are more concrete and thus more powerful (nominalization results in abstract, vague nouns)

Your sentences will be shorter and thus more direct since they will be free of unnecessary verbiage.

The logic of the relationship of the ideas will be more clear.

You sentences will tell a more coherent story.

Slide21

Useful Nominalizations

Williams does thinks some nouns derived from verbs do useful work and shouldn’t be rewritten.

37-38

Slide22


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