Ms. . Shirley . Unit 1.4 . Research Methods. Ethics. Applied Research. : Solve practical problems. (best method for teaching someone to read). Basic Research. : Explores questions that are of interest in psychology, but may not generate immediate, real-world solutions. . ID: 158677
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Psychology Ms. Shirley
Unit 1.4 Research MethodsEthicsSlide2
Applied Research: Solve practical problems (best method for teaching someone to read)Basic Research: Explores questions that are of interest in psychology, but may not generate immediate, real-world solutions. (studying how people form their attitudes about others in different cultures in terms of intelligence)
What is the goal of psychological research?Slide3
What guidelines do psychological experiments use to stay
within ethical bounds?Slide4
There are hundreds of historical examples of ethically abhorrent research experimentsSlide5
How far can an experiment go for the sake of breaking new ground in psychology?Slide6
YouTube: Psychology study leaves Australians in shockSlide7
Ethics: What you need to know...
1. Identify how ethical issues inform & constrain research practices. 2. Describe how ethical & legal guidelines protect research participants & promote sound ethical practice.
In 1991, when
, a Schizophrenic Patient and Research Subject at UCLA, Committed Suicide. 90% of patients who were untreated lapsed into a period of prolonged mental illness. This essentially proved nothing, except that the medicine they were taking was indeed working!
It Set Off a National Debate:
What Is Acceptable in Human Experimentation
& Who Decides?Slide8
APA Ethical Guidelines
Any type of academic research would need to be be proposed to the ethics board Institutional Review Board (IRB).The board ultimately decides & gives researchers permission to do their research.Slide9
Must have a clear scientific purpose.Research must answer a specific, important scientific question.Animals chosen must be best-suited to answer the question at hand.They must care for the animals in a humane way.They must acquire animal subjects legally. Animals must be purchased from accredited companies. If wild animals must be used, they need to be trapped in a humane manner.They must design experimental procedures that employ the least amount of suffering feasible.Slide10
Ethical research involving human subjects must meet the following requirements.
No coercionInformed consentAnonymity or confidentialityRiskDebriefing
"Human behavior is under situational control more than we imagine or want to believe and admit."
- Philip ZimbardoSlide11
1. No Coercion
No Coercion: Participants must know that they are involved in research and give their consent. Limited deception: If the participants are deceived in any way about the nature of the study, the deception must not be so extreme as to invalidate the informed consent.Participation is voluntary.Slide12
2. Informed Consent
The research the participants thought they were consenting to must be
similar enough to the actual study to give the informed consent meaning.Also, researchers must be very careful about the trauma deception may cause.Slide13
3. Anonymity or Confidentiality
Participants’ privacy must be protected. Their identities and actions must not be revealed by the researcher. No data matched with person’s name.If an ‘interview study’ could not guarantee perfect anonymity, it should guarantee confidentiality. Researcher will not identify the source of the data.Slide14
Participants cannot be placed at significant mental or physical risk. Typically, it is considered permissible for participants to experience temporary discomfort or stress but activities that might cause someone long-term mental or physical harm must be avoided. This clause requires interpretation by the review board. This consideration was highlighted by Stanley Milgram’s obedience studies in the 1970s in which participants thought they were causing significant harm to other participants (Social Psych chapter).Slide15
After the study, participants should be
told the purpose of the study
and provided with ways to contact the researchers about the
When research involves
, it is particularly important to conduct a thorough debriefing.Slide16
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