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C hapter 16: Analysing survey data

CONTENTS. Survey data analysis and types of research. Spreadsheet analysis. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) . Preparation. SPSS procedures. The analysis process. Survey data analysis and types of research .

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C hapter 16: Analysing survey data






Presentation on theme: "C hapter 16: Analysing survey data"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Chapter 16: Analysing survey data

Slide2

CONTENTSSurvey data analysis and types of researchSpreadsheet analysisStatistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)

Preparation

SPSS procedures

The analysis process

Slide3

Survey data analysis and types of research (Fig. 16.1)

Research type

SPSS procedures

Descriptive

Frequencies, Means

Explanatory

Crosstabulation, Comparison of means, regression

EvaluativeFrequencies – compared with targets or benchmarksCrosstabulations – comparing user/customer-groupsMeans – compared with some benchmark or target

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014)

Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide

. London:

R

outledge

Slide4

Explanatory research and causality Necessary conditions:

Associations

between variables (A changes with B)

Time priority

(B happens after A)Non-spurious relationships (relationships ‘make sense’)Rationale/theory (there should be an explanation)A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

Slide5

Spreadsheet analysis (Fig. 16.1)Example using data from Campus Sporting Life questionnaire (Fig. 10.21)FREQUENCY procedure in Microsoft Excel used to produce:

frequency counts of coded variables

averages for numerical variables (age, spend)

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014)

Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide

. London: Routledge

Slide6

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)

Software package produced by SPSS inc., owned by IBM

A

nalysis of

questionnaire-based and other

dataorganised as cases with specified variablesSPSS is effective and one of the most popular packages. Its use in this book does not imply endorsement as ‘the best’ package. A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

Slide7

SPSS procedures covered (Fig. 16.4)

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014)

Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide

. London:

R

outledge

Slide8

Preparation: cases and variables: from Fig. 10.21

VARIABLES

qno

status

cafebar

music

sport

travel

cheap

Etc

C

A

S

E

S

1

2

1

1

0

0

1

2

211101331000244000025310011631110272100038210103Etc

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014)

Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide

. London:

R

outledge

Slide9

Information required for each variable in the questionnaireNameType – numeric, string (letters) or date

Width

– max. no. of characters

Decimal places

Label – longer version of nameValues – for coded variablesMissing – blanks, no answer, etc. Columns – no. of columns in Data View screen (see below)Alignment – left, right, centre (in Data View)Measure/data type – nominal, ordinal, scale A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

Slide10

Variable namesUp to 8 characters (no spaces), beginning with a letterNot allowed: ALL AND BY EQ GT LE LT NE NOT OR TO WITHCan be:Short version of item description (as used here), or

Var01, var02, var03 etc. or

Q1a, Q1b, Q2, Q3 etc

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014)

Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide

. London: Routledge

Slide11

Types of measureNominal: described in words – eg. male/femaleOrdinal

: Ranked: 1, 2, 3 … means 1

st

, 2

nd

, 3rd ….Scale: fully numericA. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

Slide12

Variable ViewInformation on variables is entered in the SPSS ‘Variable View’ screen

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014)

Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide

. London:

R

outledge

Slide13

Variable view screen (Fig. 16.8)

Slide14

Data ViewData entered directly on the Data View screen, orCan be imported from a spreadsheet file

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014)

Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide

. London:

R

outledge

Slide15

Data View screen (Fig. 16.9)

Slide16

Note to teachersIt is not envisaged that SPSS detailed procedures would be the subject of a PowerPoint presentation: students would benefit most from following the procedures in practical sessionsA copy of the Campus Sporting Life

data files is available on the book website

However, teachers may wish to discuss the nature/ purpose of the various procedures.

Slides are therefore included with the outputs from the procedures

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014)

Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

Slide17

Descriptives: N, Minimum, Maximum, Mean & Standard Deviation for each variable.

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014)

Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide

. London:

R

outledge

Slide18

Descriptives: output: first few variables (Fig. 16.11)

N

Min.

Max.

Mean

Std. Deviation

Student status

15142.53

.915

Campus

pool

in last 4 wks

15

0

1

.87

.352

Campus

gym

in last 4 wks

15

0

1.53.516Campus squash in last 4 wks1501.33.488Spectators in last 4 wks1501.13.352Free/cheap (rank)15131.80.775Daytime events (rank)15253.73.961Not available elsewhere (rank)15131.60.737Socialising (rank)15153.201.082Quality of presentation (rank)15454.67.488Entertainment exp./month1525300115.0087.076Relaxation opportunities – imp.15132.20.676Etc.A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

Slide19

FrequenciesSimple counts/percentages of variablesNominal/ordinal: straightforwardNumeric may need to be grouped – see RecodeFrequencies form the basis for a statistical summary/appendix – see Fig. 16.6

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014)

Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide

. London:

R

outledge

Slide20

Frequencies: output (Fig. 16.12)

Student status

Frequency

PercentValid Percent

Cumulative PercentValidF/T student/no paid work

213.313.313.3F/T student/paid work

5

33.3

33.3

46.7

P/T student - F/T job

6

40.0

40.0

86.7

P/T student/Other

2

13.3

13.3

100.0

Total

15100.0100.0 Frequencies for all variables: see Appendix 16.1A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

Slide21

Multiple ResponseTwo types of ‘Multiple Response’Dichotomy:

Q. 2: use of services: 4 ‘yes/no’ variables

Best combined into one table

Category

:

Q. 6: Suggestions: up to three responses per respondent = 3 variablesBest combined into one tableA. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

Slide22

Multiple Response output: Fig. 16.13

Dichotomy

label

Name

Count

Pct of Responses Pct ofCasesCampus pool in last 4 wks pool1346.492.9Campus gym

in last 4 wks gym828.657.1Campus squash in last 4 wks squash

517.935.7Spectate, campus in last 4 wks spectate 2 7.114.3Total responses 28 100.0

200.0

Category

label

Code

Count

Pct

of Responses

Pct

of Cases

Programme content

1

7

31.8

58.3

Timing

2627.350.0Facilities3313.625.0Costs4418.233.3Organisation 52 9.116.7 Total responses 22 100.0 183.3A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

Slide23

RecodeGrouping/Re-grouping variable categories, especially:presentational: numerical variables theoretical

eg

. 5 categories of tourism or just two: leisure

vs

non-leisure?

Comparison – with other researchstatistical reasons – see Ch. 17Examples: uncoded, ‘spend’ has 9 different answers (see Appendix 16.1): recode into 4 groupsStudent status has 2 F/T and 2 P/T categories: recode into F/T and P/T A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

Slide24

Recode: output (Fig. 16.14)

Spend recoded

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

£ 0-50

426.726.726.7 £ 51-100

6

40.0

40.0

66.7

£ 101-200

2

13.3

13.3

80.0

£ 201

+

3

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total15100.0100.0 Status recoded FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent Full-time student 746.746.746.7 Part-time student853.353.3100.0 Total15100.0100.0 A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

Slide25

Measures of central tendency: Mean, Median, ModeMean = average Median

= middle value when all cases ranked in order

Mode

= most popular value

Only valid with scale and ordinal variables

Options:Add to ‘Frequencies’ procedureUse ‘Means’A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

Slide26

Mean, median, mode: ‘frequencies’ procedure (Fig. 16.15)

Additional

output from ‘Frequencies’

Relaxation opportunities - importance

Social interaction - importance

Fitness - importanceN

Valid151515Missing

000Mean2.202.671.47

Median

2.0

3.0

1.0

Mode

2

3

1

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014)

Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide

. London:

R

outledge

Slide27

Means procedure (Fig. 16.15)

Student status

Mean

N

Std. Deviation*

F/T student/no paid work102.50

267.175F/T student/paid work120.00

583.666P/T student - F/T job 99.17676.643P/T student/Other162.50

2

194.454

Total

115.00

15

87.076

Mean expenditure by student status

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014)

Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide

. London:

R

outledge

Slide28

CrosstabulationTable showing relationships between two or more variablesTable can include one or more of the following: countsrow %

column %

total %

statistical tests – see Ch. 17

Procedure: ‘Crosstabs’

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

Slide29

Crosstabs

Student status by attended

live campus music: counts only

Live campus music in last 4 wks

TotalNo

YesStudent statusF/T student/no paid work

112F/T student/paid work32

5

P/T student - F/T job

2

4

6

P/T student/Other

1

1

2

Total

7

8

15

Student status by attended live campus music: row

percentagesLive campus music in last 4 wksTotalNoYesStudent statusF/T student/no paid work50.0%50.0%100.0%F/T student/paid work60.0%40.0%100.0%P/T student - F/T job33.3%66.7%100.0%P/T student/Other50.0%50.0%100.0%Total46.7%53.3%100.0%A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

Slide30

Crosstabs contd: three variables

Gender

Live campus

music/4

wks

Total

NoYesMale

Student statusF/T student/no paid wk112

P/T student - F/T job

2

3

5

P/T student/Other

0

1

1

Total

3

5

8

Female

Student status

F/T student/paid work

325P/T student - F/T job011P/T student/Other101Total43 7A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

Slide31

WeightingWeighting discussed in Ch. 13‘Weight cases’ procedureeg. if Masters students under-sampled:

suppose masters students need to be given a weight of 1.3

create new variable wt

for Masters students wt = 1.3; all others: wt = 1

In ‘Weight cases’: weight by wt

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

Slide32

GraphicsTypes:bar graphstacked bar graphpie chart

line graph

scatter plot

Different graph types suited to different data types

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014)

Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

Slide33

Data types and graphics (Fig. 16.18)

Data type

Nominal

Ordinal

Scale

Data characteristicsQualitative categoriesRanksNumericalExample questions in Fig. 10.201, 2, 63, 54

Mean/average possibleNoYesYesTypes of graphic Bar graphYes

YesYes* Pie chartYesYesYes* Line graphNoNoYes Scatter gramNoNoYes

* Grouped

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014)

Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide

. London:

R

outledge

Slide34

Bar chart

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014)

Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide

. London:

R

outledge

Slide35

Stacked bar chart

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014)

Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide

. London:

R

outledge

Slide36

Pie chart

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014)

Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide

. London:

R

outledge

Slide37

Line graph

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014)

Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide

. London:

R

outledge

Slide38

Scatterplot

A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014)

Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide

. London:

R

outledge