Presentations text content in Rwanda
Canada’s Peacekeeping Failure
Who: Tutsi and Hutu
– two main ethnic groups in Rwanda, Africa.
In the 1400s the Tutsi’s formed most of the population of nobility and the Hutu majority (85%) of the population was mostly poor peasants.
In the 1800’s Tutsi chiefs demanded
from the Hutu’s that occupied their land.
In 1885, Rwanda became a German colony and they chose the Tutsi’s to rule.
fter WWI when Rwanda was handed to Belgium, the Belgians supported the self-government of Rwanda in 1959 (a civil war over leadership ensues until 1962 when an official election puts Hutu moderates in the seat of power)
Rwanda is an unstable country rife with violence through to the 1990s
The Hutu extremists resented Tutsi elites and the extremist group was formed…later carrying out the mass killing of almost 1 Million Tutsis in RwandaSlide3
Who: Moderate Hutu, Tutsi civilians, RPF (Tutsi), Extremist Hutu
Moderate Hutus officially take power in 1973 (President = target that starts genocide)
Tutsi civilians (minority) wind up being the victims of genocide
Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) are the Tutsi nationalist rebel group that try to take power from the 1960’s to the 1990’s. They finally succeed in 1994 (a sad victory after the 100-days genocide against their people)
The Hutu extremists are initially two militia groups called INTERAHAMWE (“those who attack together”) and IMPUZAMUGAMBI (“those who have the same goal”). But after the assassination of the President, extremist crawl out of the woodworks from the Presidential Guard, the Rwandan Armed Forces.Slide4
Who: United Nations
an intergovernmental organization established on 24 October 1945 to promote international co-operation. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was created following the Second World War to prevent another such conflict.
One of the UN's primary purposes is "promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion", and member states pledge to undertake "joint and separate action" to protect these rights.
(as per United Nations Charter –
hapters I and IX)Slide5
Who: Romeo Dallaire and UN peacekeepers
United Nations Assistance Mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR) Canadian commander Major-General Romeo
, led the Mission (which included peacekeeping troops from numerous countries, including Ghana) in Rwanda from 1993-1994 and had been credited with saving 20,000 Tutsis in safe-havens across Rwanda.
At times, more than 400 Canadian soldiers were peacekeeping in Rwanda.Slide6
What: Rwandan Genocide
100 days (April 6, 1994 – July 18, 1994)
It is estimated that between 800, 0000 to 1 Million Tutsis and Hutu moderates were slaughtered with machetes and guns by Hutu extremists. Even Hutu’s that did not take up the cause and carry out the mass killings were killed.
United Nations Assistance Mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR) could not manage the overwhelming genocide sweeping the country. Little to no support (troops, equipment or whatever) was given to the effort by the UN Security Council. In fact by Day 12, 90% of UN troops are withdrawn
April 6, 1994
DIRECT CAUSE – TRIGGER EVENT
After a plane carrying the Rwandan and Burundi Hutu Presidents crashed killing all on board. RPF was blamed in shooting down the plane (but to this day, it is unknown whether or not RPF or Hutu extremists were to blame).Slide9
On one side, the RPF want to reclaim power in Rwanda and succeed in gaining a power-share agreement with the Hutu moderate government by 1992 (after years of exile)
On the other side, the Hutu extremists plot to eradicate the Hutu moderates (in power) and the Tutsi minority
Both had a vested interest in gaining more power by assassinating the moderate President and sparking the conflict ensuedSlide10Slide11Slide12Slide13Slide14Slide15