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The use and abuse of drugs
The use and abuse of drugs

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13 Drugs Summary of Specification content Testing of new drugs and clinical trials Thalidomide Learning Outcomes Define the term drug Give examples of medical drugs Explain why drugs need to be tested before they can be prescribed ID: 510495 Download Presentation

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Slide1

The use and abuse of drugs

1.3 DrugsSlide2

Summary of Specification content

Testing of new drugs and clinical trials.

ThalidomideSlide3

Learning Outcomes

Define the term ‘drug’.

Give examples of medical drugs.

Explain

why drugs need to be tested before they can be prescribed.

Describe the uses and problems associated with thalidomide.

Explain how the drug testing procedure for thalidomide was inappropriate.

Describe the main steps in testing a new drug.

Explain the terms placebo and double-blind trial. Slide4

Discuss:

what

is a drug?

Names

of medicines

.Slide5

Medicines from plants

Drugs are chemicals

that affect the way cells work

That have an effect on the processes of the body

Medicinal drugs

Have a beneficial effect

Used

for treating disease, injury and

pain

Example: - Paracetemol

Effective painkiller

High doses can cause liver damage

In extreme cases it can be lethalSlide6

Recreational drugs

Some drugs are taken for pleasure

These include

Caffeine

Alcohol

Cannabis

Nicotine

HeroinSlide7

Natural medicines

Many of the chemicals used to make medicines occur naturally in plants

aspirin

white willow bark

quinine

to treat malaria

from Cinchona tree

morphine and codeine

analgesics

from opium poppiesSlide8

Natural medicines

75 – 80% of the world’s population use medicines originally derived from plants

Many of these plants are found in rainforests

The rosy periwinkle is the source of two chemicals that are used to treat cancer.Slide9

Obtaining drugs from plants

Many of the plants contain these chemicals to protect them from herbivores

Problem

they are harmful to other living organisms

could be potentially harmful to humans if used in drug preparations

So any potential drug has to be tested for:

efficacy

toxicitySlide10

Modern Drug Testing

Modern clinical trials are double blind trials, where some patients are given a placebo.

Placebo

compound

presented in the same

way

Double blind

neither

doctors nor patients know who gets drug or

placebo

avoids

bias in ‘looking for

results’Slide11

Modern Drug testing

Stage 1:

Laboratory

Animals

or tissues

used in a lab to find out

Level of toxicity

Efficacy – does the drug work?

Phase 1 Clinical

trial

Low doses tested on a group of healthy people

Evaluate safety

Identify side effectsSlide12

Modern Drug testing

Phase

2

Clinical

trial

Larger group of people

See if it is effective

Further evaluate safety

Determine optimum dose

Phase 3 clinical trial

Large groups of people

Confirm effectiveness

Monitor side effectsSlide13

History of drug testing

Digitalis

is a natural toxin found in foxgloves

can be fatal in even quite small doses.

used for centuries in herbal remedies to treat some heart conditions.

William Withering rigorously tested digitalis and brought it into conventional medicine in 1775.Slide14

Testing a new drugSlide15

Testing a new drug

Compare the two flow charts by answering the following questions

What similarities are there

?

What differences are there?

In

what way is the current system of drug testing safer and more reliable

?

What

do we gain nowadays from testing the drug on healthy volunteers first

?

Why is it important to randomly assign patients to the treatments and have a double blind trial?Slide16

What similarities are there?

In both cases a potentially useful medicinal substance was identified

First small and then larger groups of patients were treated with the drugSlide17

What differences are there?

The current method seeks single active ingredients

Animal trials are used before testing on humans to assess

efficacy

toxicity

Drug tried out on a group of healthy people

first

confirms

whether drug behaves in the body in the way predicted by the lab tests

effects

of different doses

monitored

Independent

review of data carried out in current systemSlide18

Further differences

Statistical analysis of data

to see if any difference is due to

chance

the drug

Once regarded as effective and safe drug has to be strictly licensed before it can be marketedSlide19

In what way is the current system of drug testing safer and more reliable?

Safer

Use of specific active ingredient should allow a more precise dose to be given

Any serious ill effects may be detected in the animal trials first

More reliable

Uses larger samples reduces effects of

chance

Double

blind testing avoids patient/researcher bias in observing, recording and interpreting effects

Statistical analysis of data improves accuracy of conclusions as to whether or not drug

has an effectSlide20

What do we gain nowadays from testing the drug on healthy volunteers first?

Check no unexpected side effects

Observe

behaviour

of drug in a human e.g. is the compound absorbed, how is it distributed, is it

metabolised

and broken down too quickly, is it excreted before it has an effect etc.Slide21

Why is it important to randomly assign patients to the treatments and have a double blind trial?

Prevents

subconscious prediction or influence of the outcome by both patient and researcher

psychosomatic influencesSlide22

In the news

Sometimes things do go wrong!

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/london/4811626.stm

Ethical issues here!

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/hottopics/animalexperiments/

http://www.beep.ac.uk/content/396.0.html

Even licensing can lead to controversy!

http://www.bbc.co.uk/stoke/content/articles/2005/09/26/herceptin_intro_2005_feature.shtm

lSlide23

Even licensing can lead to controversy!

http://www.bbc.co.uk/stoke/content/articles/2005/09/26/herceptin_intro_2005_feature.shtm

lSlide24

Use of animals in research

http://www.mrc.ac.uk/NewsViewsAndEvents/News/MRC003445

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/5365206.stmSlide25

Thalidomide

Thalidomide

drug used in the 1960’s as a sleeping pill

Effective at relieving morning sickness in pregnant women, but had not been tested for this use

Reduced the development of blood capillaries in the foetus and babies were born with underdeveloped arms and legs

Banned as soon as these side effects were noticed

Currently used for

Treating leprosy

Treating cancerSlide26

Thalidomide Activities

Use

pictures to relate uses and problems associated with thalidomide.

Research

and produce a report on thalidomide – original use, use in pregnant women, current uses. Slide27

How Science Works - ICT

You have developed a drug that can make people more intelligent. Create a multimedia advertising campaign explaining what your drug can do and showing that it has been properly tested and is safe to use.Slide28

PPQ Jan 10 (H) Question 4

(a)

testing

for toxicity / see if it is safe

/ see

if it is dangerous / to see if

it works

ignore side effects unqualified 1

(

b)(

i

)

testing

for side effects / testing

for reactions

(to drug)

ignore to see if it works

do

not

accept

dosageSlide29

(

b)(ii) any

one

from

dose

too low to help

patient

higher

risk for

patient

might

conflict with

patient’s treatment

/ patient on other

drug

effect

might be masked

by patient’s

symptoms / side

effects clearer

ignore immune

systemSlide30

(c

)

to

find optimum dose

allow

testing on larger sample

or

it makes

results more

reliable

allow

to find out if drug is effective

/ find

out if drug works on ill people

(not just if drug works)Slide31

(d

)(

i

)

(

tablet

/

drug

/

injection) that

does not

contain drug

allow control / fake / false

allow tablet / injection that does

not affect

body

do

not

accept drug that does

not affect

body

(d

)(ii)

neither patients nor doctors Slide32

Drug trialling – Suggested Activities

Discuss:

Discuss

drug safety and how drugs are tested today.

Activity

:

Cards/cut-outs

to sequence stages in drug testing and trialling and purpose of each stage.Slide33

Summary of Specification content

Statins lower the amount of cholesterol in the blood.

Recreational drugsSlide34

Learning Outcomes

Describe and evaluate the effect of statins in cardiovascular disease

.Slide35

Cholesterol Revision

Cholesterol

is produced naturally in the liver

Some people have high cholesterol levels

Too much cholesterol

increases the build up of fatty deposits in artery walls

Increases risk of heart disease

Evidence that reducing cholesterol in the blood reduces the risk of heart disease and heart attacksSlide36

Statins

Statins

Reduce the production of cholesterol by the liver

Reduces blood cholesterol levels

Used to treat patients who are at risk because they have a high cholesterol and a history of heart disease in their family.Slide37

Task: Interpret data

on

statinsSlide38

any

two

from:

balance

between two important

for good

heart

health

i

gnore

blood pressure

high

LDL causes heart disease /

high Cholesterol

do

not

accept converse argument

high

HDL reduces heart disease

/ cholesterol

do

not

accept converse argumentSlide39

heart attacks greater amongst

patients with

low HDL

levels

ignore

statins cause heart disease

statins

reduce heart attacks of patients

or

placebo

is less effective

ignore

comparative effects of the

two statins

allow pravastatin is more

effective supported

by appropriate calculationsSlide40

Revision – drug testing

T

toxicity

H

Healthy people for side effects

P

Patients for effectiveness

D

Patients for dose

Make your own mnemonic to remember the sequence of events in drugs testing.Slide41

Learning Outcomes

Name some recreational drugs.

 Describe some effects of caffeine on the body.Slide42

Recreational drugs

A drug is any chemical that alters how our body works

Drugs that affect the central nervous system control the movement of chemicals across the synapses.

Drugs have similar shapes to these chemicals and can mimic what they do.

Recreational drugs are taken for pleasureSlide43

Recreational drugs

Legal

Alcohol

Caffeine

Nicotine

Illegal

Cannabis

Cocaine

Heroin

Ecstasy

All of these may have adverse effects on the heart and circulatory system.Slide44

Drug Dependence

Chemical

Dependence

the body adapts

to the presence of the drug.

When

the chemical is removed the body is no longer able to function normally.

The body then goes into withdrawal symptoms such as hallucinations, fevers, nausea (feeling sick) and shakes.

These

are real, physical signs

.

Psychological

dependence

the

person feels a need for the drug.

They feel

unable to cope without the drug.

For example:

some

smokers need to chew sweets after they give up because they miss having a cigarette in their mouths.Slide45

Caffeine

A

stimulant

is a drug that increases the activity of the nervous system.

It

can raise the alertness, emotions or mood.

Caffeine

is a mild stimulant found in tea and coffee.

Prolonged

overuse may lead to problems with the heart, stomach and pancreas.Slide46

Discuss:

Brainstorm on recreational drugs, sort into legal and illegal and discuss why people use them.

How

Science Works:

Investigate the effect of caffeine on heart rate or reaction timeSlide47

Summary of Specification content

Recreational drugs

Impact

of legal drugs on health is greater than illegal drugs as more people use them

.Slide48

Learning Outcomes

Evaluate the impact of smoking on

health.

Evaluate

why some people use illegal drugs for recreation.

Evaluate claims made about the effect of prescribed and non-prescribed drugs on health.Slide49

Smoking

Benson And Hedges Gold 20

Pack

£

7.25

Lambert

And Butler King Size 20 Pack

£

6.89

Decide how many cigarettes you are going to smoke in one day

Calculate how much you will spend on cigarettes in a week

Calculate how much you will spend on cigarettes in

a year

If you started smoking at 16 and continued to smoke until you were 65, how much money will you have spent on cigarettes?Slide50

Smoking and Health

To

understand the effects of smoking you need to look at the

three components

of cigarette

smoke

Nicotine

Carbon monoxide

Tar Slide51

Nicotine

Nicotine is

Addictive

a

stimulant

make

the heart beat faster

Increasing

the normal heart beat rate can cause stress for the heart which can lead to heart disease. Slide52

Carbon Monoxide

This

gas binds irreversibly to the haemoglobin in red blood cells preventing them from carrying oxygen.

This

will make the smoker more out of

breath.

Smoking during pregnancy

Reduces the

amount of oxygen which is being passed on to the developing

foetus

This

slows down the growth of the foetus as it develops. Slide53

Tar

Tar

is a mixture of many different

chemicals.

It

prevents the cilia in the lungs from working and so the dirt and tar cannot be removed from the lungs.

The

tar damages the delicate alveoli, often making them burst.

This

reduces the surface area of the lungs and leads to breathing problems like

Emphysema

and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Slide54

Carcinogens

Tar contains carcinogens which are chemicals which

can cause cancer.

A cancer is an abnormal growth of cells caused by a change in the genes which control growth.

The

tumour damages healthy cells and tissues as it grows and can spread to other areas of the body.

Smoking increases the risk of lung cancer, mouth cancer and throat cancer.Slide55

Pupil Activities

Poster

to show effects of chemicals in smoke on the body.

Show

health warning on packets of cigarettes; video clips of smoking adverts. Why do people smoke?Slide56

Further information

Useful

information on drugs can be found at

www.talktofrank.com

A useful tool about smoking can be found on the NHS website at

www.nhs.uk

by searching ‘smoking calculator’.

Further information on smoking can be found at

www.ash.org.uk

Slide57

Jun 09 Qu

3 BLY1H

(

a)(

i

)

tobacco / nicotine / alcohol accept solvent / glue / caffeine

ignore cigarettes /

coffee

(a

)(ii)

cannabis / heroin / cocaine allow

eg

crack / weed / ecstasy /

LSD /

amphetamine / speed / steroids

/ GHB

(b)(

i

)

heroin / cocaine / tobacco / nicotine ignore alcohol / cigarettes /

cannabis /

caffeine / coffee

(b

)(ii)

alters body chemistry

ignore

withdrawal symptoms

/ craving

ignore non-chemical effects

on nervous

systemSlide58

Jun 09 Qu 3 BLY1H

(

c)

any

two

from:

increase

in cannabis

smoking increases

(%) depression

greater

effect in

women

allow women become more depressed

depression

linked with /

not directly

caused by cannabis

not

all cannabis smokers

get depression

ignore

cannabis causes

depressionSlide59

Jan 09 Qu

3 BLY1H

(

a)(

i

)

does not contain drug / chemical

allow eg fake / sugar pill /

dummy

drug

(a

)(ii)

as control

or

to see if the effects

are psychological

or

allows blind

testing

allow ‘to compare (with NRT)’

(b

)(

i

)

gum

allow gum placebo

allow placeboSlide60

(

b)(ii)

high / highest number of participants

/ people

or

correct number given

ie

gum

16706

, gum placebo 9319,

placebo

16458

(c)(

i

)

nasal spray

(c

)(ii)

highest percentage of people stopped

/ 24

% stopped

biggest difference between

treatment and

placebo

allow ‘highest by 4%’ for

2

marksSlide61

Summary of Specification content

Recreational drugs

Impact

of legal drugs on health is greater than illegal drugs as more people use them.Slide62

Learning Outcomes

Evaluate the impact of alcohol on health.

Evaluate why some people use illegal drugs for recreation.

Evaluate claims made about the effect of prescribed and non-prescribed drugs on health.Slide63

Alcohol and Health

The

alcohol in alcoholic drinks such as wines, beer and spirits is

ethanol

.

It

is a

depressant

It slows

down

impulses

in the nerves and brain.

Health

Small

amounts of alcohol help people to

relax

greater

amounts lead to a

lack of self-control

.

Long-term

effects of alcohol include

damage to the liver and brain

.

Alcohol

may also cause weight

gain

it

is addictive.Slide64

In an exam you may be asked to:-

Discuss

effects of alcohol on the body,

R

ecommended

units for men and women.

Calculate number of units of alcohol consumed.

Relate

smoking and alcohol to NHS costs

.Slide65

Summary of Specification content

Recreational drugs

Cannabis

Drug

addiction and withdrawal symptoms – heroin and cocaine

.Slide66

Learning Outcomes

Describe the effects of cannabis on the body.

Consider the possible progression from recreational to hard drugs.

Describe the effects of heroin/cocaine addiction and withdrawal symptoms

.Slide67

Cannabis

Cannabis is an illegal drug that can be smoked, producing feelings of well-being.

like

tobacco it can cause lung cancer and bronchitis.

it

can cause permanent damage to the mental health of its users.

Research

has shown that cannabis has some useful painkilling properties, but it is illegal to prescribe it for this use.Slide68

Card sort

Cut and sort into arguments for pro and anti-legislation for cannabisSlide69

It can be used for nervous conditions to relieve anxiety due to its relaxing properties

Cannabis is addictive due to the tobacco it is mixed with

Cannabis can be an effective pain killer for diseases such as cancer and multiple sclerosis

Cannabis can be a starter for harder more dangerous drugs

It would reduce crime as there would be no need for a “black” market for the drug

It will make the drug more readily available to younger citizens

No-one has ever died from an overdose of cannabis

It can be the cause of many mental conditions later in life

It is a stress reliever, which could save money for the NHS, and reduce the amount of people on sick pay.

It slows down your reactions making it almost impossible to make informed decisions

As well as its own effects, it holds all the bad effects of tobacco, when smoked with tobacco.

It contains carcinogens 6 times stronger than those in tobacco, which can cause lung cancer. Slide70

Interpret

data on cannabis use and progression to hard drugs

.Slide71

Does cannabis lead to hard drugs?

Cannabis can cause mental illness in some people

Cannabis is an illegal drug which is bought from dealers

This brings cannabis users into contact with hard drugs such as heroin

Not all cannabis users go on to hard drugs

Nearly all heroin users previously smoked cannabis.Slide72

Withdrawal

Once addicted people will suffer withdrawal symptoms if they don’t take the drug.

Withdrawal symptoms can be

Psychological e.g. paranoia

Physical e.g. sweating and

vomittingSlide73

Websites

Information on cannabis can be found on the NHS website at

www.nhs.uk

by searching ‘the dangers of cannabis’.

Further information on drugs can be found on the following websites

www.dare.uk.com

www.nida.nih.gov

and on the NHS website at

www.nhs.uk

by searching for ‘drugs’Slide74

Summary of Specification content

Steroids and performance enhancing drugs

.Slide75

Learning Outcomes

Evaluate the use of drugs to enhance performance in sport.

Consider the ethical issues of performance enhancing drugs.

Describe some effects and risks of these drugs

.Slide76

Drugs in sport

Some

atheletes

use drugs to enhance their performance

Steroids are used to build up muscle mass, other drugs can improve stamina

Strong painkillers are banned

Athlete might ignore an injury, suffering further damage

Performance enhancing drugs can damage the body permanentlySlide77

Drugs in Sport

Some

athletes take illegal substances to enhance their performance, an activity known as ‘doping’.

There

are 5 'doping

classes which

are categories of banned drugs

:

Stimulants

Anabolic agents - steroids

Diuretics

Narcotic analgesics

Peptides and hormonesSlide78

Drugs in sport

Doping class

Effect on performance

Dangerous side-effects

Stimulants

Make athletes more alert and mask fatigue

Can cause heart failure, addictive

Anabolic agents - steroids

Help athletes to train harder and build muscle

Increased aggression andkidney damage

Diuretics

Remove fluid from the body. Used :to make the weight, eg in boxing

to hide other drug use

Causes severe dehydration

Narcotic analgesics

Mask pain caused by injury or fatigue which can make the injury worse

Addictive

Peptides and hormones

EPO (Erythropoietin) red blood cells - gives more

energy

HGH (Human Growth Hormone) - build muscle

EPO - risk of stroke or heart problems

.

HGH - abnormal growth, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis

etcSlide79

Questions to think about

Is it unethical to take drugs to enhance

performance?

Are

there

any current news items regarding the use of drugs in sport?

Lance Armstrong - cycling

Alan Baxter - SkiingSlide80

Research:

Research

types of drugs used in sport and their effects on the body and produce a table

.Slide81

Activity:

Role

play, write a story or debate about using drugs in sport; random drug testing; getting caught cheating

.

Shom More....
By: luanne-stotts
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