Immigration and urbanization

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Immigration in America. Immigrants come to America to find a better life. Immigration also increased the Industrial Boom!. Majority came from Britain, Ireland, Germany, Italy, Russia, China, and Japan. ID: 699780 Download Presentation

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Immigration and urbanization

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Immigration and urbanization


Immigration in America

Immigrants come to America to find a better life

Immigration also increased the Industrial Boom!

Majority came from Britain, Ireland, Germany, Italy, Russia, China, and Japan

From 1866-1915 25 million immigrants came over


Immigration in America

Most arrive in steamships

Often travel in cargo holds

1 week across the Atlantic and a 3-week journey across the Pacific

“Oh God, I was sick. Everybody was sick. I don’t even want to remember anything about that old boat. One night I prayed to God that it would go down because the waves were washing over it. I was that sick, I didn’t care if it went down or not.”

- Bertha Devlin, an Irish immigrant 1923


Conditions on the steamships were very poor and overcrowded. They were not allowed on deck, slept in louse-infested bunks, shared toilets, and in such conditions disease spread quickly. Some even died before they reached America.

Immigrants traveling to the United States


Ellis Island

Main immigration station on the East Coast

Nearly 11,000 people entered the US at Ellis Island each day

Immigrants had to pass several tests before they were allowed to stay in America

Physical exam (5 hours), government inspections, literacy tests, ability to work, money to get started, etc.


Quotes from Immigrants coming through Ellis Island




Liberty Enlightening the World

The Statue of Liberty greeted those entering Ellis Island.

Designed by Frederick Bartholdi, the skeletal framework within the monument was made by



His mother is believed to be the model

A gift from France to symbolize our alliance during the American Revolution. The people of France financed the statue itself while Americans financed the pedestal and island.


The Statue of Liberty

The Statue of Liberty was unveiled October 28


, 1886

“Lady Liberty” portrays a woman escaping the chains of tyrannyTorch – liberty

Tablet – The date of our independence is inscribed

7 Spikes on her crown – 7 seas and continents

Project cost $87 million and took 2 years to complete


Angel Island

Main immigration station on the West Coast

Immigrants were treated more harshly here because of their Asian descent

Difficult questioning

Filthy buildingsConfined liked prisoners until their fate was decided


Anti-Asian Sentiment

Native-born workers in the West feared their jobs would go to the Chinese, who would accept lower wages.


Chinese Exclusion Act

Banned entry to all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials

In 1902 Chinese immigration was restricted indefinitely


Anti-Asian Sentiment

San Francisco segregated Japanese in school.

Gentlemen’s Agreement –

Japan would limit emigration of unskilled workers to America, if San Francisco repeals its segregation order.


Culture Shock

Confusion and anxiety caused by a new culture and language

Immigrants from places like Russia, Italy, China, and Japan were generally not well liked. Why?

Previous country had yet to experience Industrial Revolution

Ethnic communities formed to help immigrants cope (like little Italy)

Speak native language

Learn new customs together


Melting Pot

The US becomes known as a melting pot

Immigrant groups assimilate into the dominant culture

Some argue that we are now a salad bowl instead of a melting pot.

Why do you think that is?


Urbanization = rapid growth of cities

Many move to the cities because of more opportunities and cheaper living




6 major problems associated with urbanization:

Housing –

Overcrowded, unsanitary, 2-3 families living in a single home

Transportation – Develop public transportation to help; cable cars, subways



Water –

Begin chlorinating water in 1893 to make it safer to drink

Sanitation –

Animal and human waste, pollution, garbage piled in streets. Create sanitation departments and sewage lines.Fire –

Limited water supply and wood dwellings

Cincinnati creates the 1

st paid fire department in 1853

Crime –

Pickpockets, thieves, con men, gangs

New York city creates the first police department in 1844


Sanitation Problems


Political Machines

Control enough votes to maintain political and administrative control of the city

Often led by one person “Boss” behind the scenes

Offer services to citizens and businesses in exchange for financial or political support

City jobs or contractsPolitical Appointments

Help immigrants gain citizenship


Political Machines

Political Machines had control over political offices and city jobs

Fire, Police, Sanitation, Etc.

Bosses also took large amounts of “graft” or kickbacks

Falsified bills and accepted bribes


The Tweed Ring

Led by William Marcy Tweed

Controlled New York City (Tammany Hall)

Illegally took $200 million in graft

A Political cartoonist, Thomas Nast, helped expose TweedResulted in Tweeds arrest


The Merit System

Reformers called for an end to the Spoils System

Giving government jobs to those who helped them win election

The Pendleton Act:

Required jobs in civil service to be based on qualifications, not political connections

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