7th Multi-Stakeholder Partnership
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7th Multi-Stakeholder Partnership

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Presentation on theme: "7th Multi-Stakeholder Partnership"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

7th Multi-Stakeholder Partnership Meeting Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 8th May 2017

Multiple Benefits from Sustainable Livestock

Henning Steinfeld, FAO

Slide2

“Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Brundtland Report, 1987 Millennium Development Goals2000 to 2015

2015

to

2030

Slide3

Cooperating with the future“Overexploitation of renewable resources today has a high cost on the welfare of future generations”Hauser et al., 2014Generation 1 5 playersCommon pool of 100 unitsEach player can extract 0 to 20 units

The voting institution is robust to extreme decision-makers

and thereby

increases cooperative

behavior

% units extract >

T

% units extract <

T

Defectors

Cooperators

Slide4

“Meeting the needs of all within the means of the planet”Raworth, 2017

Slide5

“Ecologically safe and socially just space”The inner ring of the doughnut represents a sufficiency of the resources we need to lead a good life: food, clean water, housing, sanitation, energy, education, healthcare, democracy. Anyone living within that ring, in the hole in the middle of the doughnut, is in a state of deprivation. The outer ring of the doughnut consists of the Earth’s environmental limits, beyond which we inflict dangerous levels of climate change, ozone depletion, water pollution, loss of species and other assaults on the living world.Raworth, 2017

Slide6

Livestock

RESOURCE POOL

HUMAN

BENEFITS

lIVESTOCK

AND the

interplay

of bio-

physical

(nature) and

socio-economic

(

human

)

dimensionS

NATURAL

RESOURCES

Land

Water

Genetic

resources

Nutrients

Energy

LIVESTOCK

PRODUCTS

Food

Manure

Fuel

Draft power

Leather

Fiber

ECONOMIC and

SOCIAL SERVICES

Growth

Poverty reduction

Employment

Health and nutrition

Equity

Landscape

Political stability

ENVIRONMENTAL

SERVICES

Climate

Nutrient cycling

Biodiversity conservation

Water

cycles

Environmental Health

CLIMATE CHANGE

COMPETITION & SCARCITY

DEMAND GROWTH

Slide7

Bio-physical dimensionEnergy capture, photosynthesis, fuels (fossil, biofuels)65,000 TW reaches the hydrosphere, but less than 1% is converted to NPPThe food sector currently accounts for 30% of the world’s total energy consumption (FAO, 2011) Livestock energy conversion typically ranges from 1.0 to 4.3 MJ of fossil fuel per MJ of animal product (Giampietro, 2002)Land use Livestock systems occupy 29% of the global surface area3.3 billion hectares for rangelands; 25% of total land area0.5 billion hectares of the crop land area is being used for feed production; 4% of the total land area

Biodiversity 75% of the world’s food supply is generated from only 12 plants and five animal speciesLivestock have direct impacts on biodiversity through trampling, grazing, and defecation, the

larger indirect impacts - through deforestation, GHG emissions, feed trading, and water pollution (Reid et al, 2009)

Water

About 70% (2769 km

3

/year)

of fresh water is used for agriculture

(

AQUASTAT, 2016)

Water

use for livestock

represents

31%

of the total agriculture water

use

(de

Fraiture

et al., 2007)

Slide8

Nutrients

Livestock is an important source of soil nutrients, where reliance on fertilizer is low, like in Sub- Saharan Africa

(Goulding et al., 2008; Rufino et all., 2006)

Nutrient use efficiency

(NUE) for Nitrogen ranges from 27-48% for the livestock supply chain in Europe (

Uwizeye

et al., 2016

), and from 46-121% in crop-livestock systems in Africa (

Rufino

et al., 2006)

Climate change

Livestock supply chains emitted

8.1

gigatonnes

CO

2

-eq in

2010

(GLEAM 2007 Version 2.0)

Livestock production in

Sub-Saharan Africa represents 5% of the total global sector’s emission

(

GLEAM 2007 Version 2.0)Emission intensity of dairy systems in Ethiopia is on average 24.5 Kg CO

2 eq./kg FPCM, and ranges from 3.8 to 44.6 Kg CO2 eq./kg across dairy production systems (FAO & NZA Greenhouse Gas Research Centre, 2017)

DiseasesCurrent emerging infectious diseases are associated with human modification of the environmentAnimal diseases generate a wide range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts that may be both

direct and indirect, and may vary from localized to global (Perry & Sones 2009)Biomass production

Humans appropriate 25% of the total net primary production

(HANPP

)

(

Krausmann

et

al., 2013

)

Agriculture

represents 84–86% of total appropriation of HANNP,

with 42–46% on cropland and 29–33

% on grazing land (

Krausmann

et al., 2013

).

HANPP in Sub-

Sarahan

Africa is around 18%

(Haberl

et al., 2007)

Bio-physical dimension

Slide9

Socio-economic dimensionFood and Nutrition‘All’ the world’s population, i.e. 7.4 billion people consume food every day.793 million people are undernourished, 1.9 billion people are overweight, of which 600 million obese adults (WHO)Livestock products contribute 17% to global calorie consumption and 33% to protein consumption globally23% of Sub-Saharan population is undernourished (FAO, 2016). In Ethiopia, 32% of the population is undernourished (FAO, 2016) and 16.8% is overweight (WHO, 2014)Value, income and employmentAgriculture (primary production) contributes $5.2 trillion or 6% to world’s GDP Livestock global asset is valued at least $3.1 trillion Livestock supply chain employ at least 1.3 billion people globally and directly support the livelihoods of 600 million poor smallholder farmersIn Ethiopia, the dairy sector represents 40% of agricultural GDP and 12–16% in the national GDP

There are about 11.4 million livestock producing households in Ethiopia (CSA, 2013)

Slide10

Socio-economic dimensionRural growth and linkages, political stabilityAgricultural growth has multiplier effects, and raises income by factor 1. 7 to 2.7 in Africa and Asia (Pinstrup Andersen and Watson, 2011).Increases in international food prices can lead to unrest and conflict, e.g. “Arab spring” (Arezki and Markus Brückner, 2011)Environmental services and cultural valuesTourism, landscape aestheticsFood as part of culture and social interaction

Slide11

Outside pressures (external drivers)Demand growthPopulation growth2015/2050: World: 7.3 to 9.7 billion (+32%); SSA: 1.0 to 2.2 billion (+120%); Ethiopia: 99.4 to 188.5 million (+90% )Changing dietsEthiopia’s milk consumption is 19 liters per person per year. In urban areas, as in Addis Ababa, milk per capita consumption is currently 52 liters (FAO & NZA Greenhouse Gas Research Centre, 2017)Urbanization 2015/2050: World: 54 to 65%; SSA: 37 to 53%; Ethiopia: 19 to 37%Climate change Increase in temperature and CO2 levelClimate variability – extreme events (droughts, floods)New disease threatsCompetition and scarcityCompetiton for land, water, energyGrowing scarcity (water depletion, land degradation, phosphorus, energy)

Slide12

Ways of describing the interplayMatter flows: LCAValues flows: value chain analysisPathogen flows: disease transmission

Slide13

The interplay between bio-physical and socio-economic dimensionsMatter transformation: Life Cycle Assessment of Livestock Supply ChainNutrientsNutrients & waste Land, water, feeds

Protein and calories

Slide14

The interplay between bio-physical and socio-economic dimensionsValue Chain: Livestock Supply Chain$$Benefits (value) is generated and distributed at each step

Slide15

The interplay between bio-physical and socio-economic dimensionsHealth: Livestock Supply ChainInteractions involving different organisms (plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and pathogens) in all stages

Slide16

The interplay between bio-physical and socio-economic dimensionsMatter transformation: Nitrogen use in the livestock supply chainThe Life-Cycle Nutrient Use Efficiency (NUE) for Nitrogen ranges from 27-48% for the livestock supply chain in Europe (Uwizeye et al., 2016)NUE at animal level ranges from 15 to 35%, while farm and system level NUE ranges from 15 to 55% (Gerber et al., 2014)System boundary and nutrients flows in livestock supply chains (Uwizeye et al., 2016)

Slide17

The interplay between bio-physical and socio-economic dimensionsValue chains Traditional Milk Marketing Channel in BangladeshDairy farmerLocal consumer/Tea stallGowala (middlemen)

76%

5

%

Household consumption: 15%

Cooperatives/Suppliers

Informal

Informal

F

ormal

4%

Dairy farmer

New Zealand Dairy Value Chain

Cooperatives

Branding and marketing

Shipping and wholesale distribution

Processing

Food manufacturing (ingredients)

Export

Commodity flow

Flow of value

From

the farmers in New Zealand to customers in over 140 countries

Milk is manufactured in more than 50 sites in NZ and other countries

NZ produces 4% of world’s milk

95% of the milk is exported

Gowala

earn a major share of the profit from unorganized milk market system

Slide18

Pathway map of AMA and AMR dissemination within agriculture, the environment, and the food processing industry.

Sophie

Thanner

et al.

mBio

2016; doi:10.1128/mBio.02227-15

Slide19

The interplay between bio-physical and socio-economic dimensionsSpatial dimension: Soybean expansion in BrazilBrazil produced 95.5 million metric tons of soybeans in 2015/2016China imported 45% of total Brazilian soybean productionChina soybean imports represents: Financial flow: 16.4 bi US$Land use area: 10,421,011 haPotential territorial deforestation area: 866,564 haSource: Trase, 2015

Slide20

The interplay between bio-physical and socio-economic dimensionsTemporal dimension: environmental impact time-lagGreenhouse GasLifetime in the atmosphere (years)Carbon dioxide50-200Methane12Nitrous oxide120CFC-12100 CFC-11

45GHG lifetime in the atmosphere

Long-term effect of N fertilization

Groundwater time-of-travel estimates and tritium data both suggest that groundwater remains resident in these watersheds for more than 30 years, therefore changes in agricultural practices may take decades to fully affect improvements in groundwater quality (

Tomer

and

Burkart

, 2002)

Slide21

Balance human needs

Increase

resource-use

efficiency

Protect

, and enhance

critical resources

LIVESTOCK

NATURAL SYSTEM

HUMAN SYSTEM

PRINCIPLES

of

Sustainable

Food and

AGRICULTURe

ENVIRONMENTAL

SERVICES

Climate

Nutrient cycling

Biodiversity conservation

Oceans and water cycles

Environmental health

NATURAL

RESOURCES

Land

Water

Genetic

resources

Nutrients

Energy

LIVESTOCK

PRODUCTS

Food

Manure

Fuel

Draft power

Leather

Fiber

ECONOMIC and

SOCIAL SERVICES

Growth

Poverty reduction

Employment

Health and nutrition

Equity

Landscape

Political stability

Manage Risks and build resilience

Develop governance and

institutions

SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES

Slide22

SFA Approach - Five PrinciplesImprove efficiency of resourcesProtect critical resourceEnhance human benefitsManage risks and build resilienceDevelop governance and institutions

Slide23

land labourcapital Subsistence

Industrial Medium-scale commercial

E

xtensive

Agri

-food system

transition

l

and

capital

labour

Figure 1. Three dimensional parameter-space showing the interplay between land (green),

labour

(blue) and capital (red). The extreme high values of each

accompanied by low values of the other two

are indicated as the corners of a triangle.

Slide24

Figure 2. False colour composite image representing each dimension, equally scaled on a different coloured gun. Land (green) is proxied by length of growing period; labour (blue) by rural population density and and capital (red) by night-time lights (see text). land labour

capital

Land

Labour

Capital

Colour

Lo

Lo

Lo

Black

Hi

Lo

Lo

Green

Lo

Hi

Lo

Blue

Lo

Lo

Hi

Red

Lo

Hi

Hi

Magenta

Hi

Hi

Lo

Cyan

Hi

Lo

Hi

Yellow

Hi

Hi

Hi

White

Version 02: Red: by

night-time

lights

Green:: length of growing period;

Blue: Marius’s new Ag pop at 10k

NB

orange is created by:

R) Capital = HIGH

G

) Land

=

MEDIUM

B)

Labour

= LOW

Slide25

Resource efficiencyExtensive Systems – efficiency in providing multiple benefits; focus on eco-systems services, often through mobilityLabour Intensive – efficiency in land use and non-tradables, often through diversificationCapital Intensive – efficiency in use of external inputs, integration through commercial linkages

Slide26

Protect and Enhance Critical ResourcesExtensive Systems: focus on resource integrity of unmanaged (or lightly managed) environmentsLabour Intensive: maintain resource productivity (prevent degradation, restore fertility, circular economy (on farm)Capital Intensive: prevent pollution and over-exploitation (water), circular economy within landscape

Slide27

Balance human benefitsExtensive systems: maintain rights of indigenous/traditional users; provide alternatives where necessaryLabour Intensive: optimize food security, income, employment for low-income populations, reduce losses and disease pressureCapital Intensive: avoid overconsumption and food waste, focus on urban consumption; food safety

Slide28

Manage Risks and ResilienceExposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacityExtensive Systems: very exposed to natural risks/climate variation; adaptation through mobility and exitsLabour Intensive: exposed to disease risks and climate shocks; adaptation through diversificationExposed to over-exploitation and resource pressure; adaptation through resource restoration and exits, collective actionCapital Intensive: exposed to market risks and disease; adaptation through insurance schemes and changes in business models

Slide29

Governance and institutionsThrough policy dialogue, multi-stakeholder consultation and regulatory frameworksExtensive Systems: Regulate access to common property resources: land, water, biodiversity; provide payment for environmental services; social protectionLabour Intensive: encourage collective action to address high transaction costs; ensure access to critical natural resources (water, grazing land)Capital Intensive: Address negative environmental and health externalities (regulations, fees)

Slide30

Integrated approach Integration of Stakeholders (Global Agenda): Dialogue – Consensus – Joint ActionIntegration of Objectives – enhance multiple benefit, reduce trade-offsIntegration of Technical Domains and Scientific ApproachesBio-physical transformation - LCAValue generation and distribution – values chain analysisHuman health, animal health, environmental health – One HealthFrom Maximization to OptimizationMultiple Benefits from Integration

Slide31

ConclusionsFA major driver of environmental change – large interface with common property resourcesFA provide more human benefits than just GDP – income, employment, culture, social life and cohesionDiversity of systems and interactions; private goods and common resourcesSustainability: Multiple objectives, changing over timeintegrated tools for multiple benefits“collaborating with the future”

Slide32

Thank youhenning.steinfeld@fao.org