Reflection and Reflection and

Reflection and - PowerPoint Presentation

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Reflection and - PPT Presentation

r eflective writing Chris Doye Institute for Academic Development University of Edinburgh November 2012 What is reflection Exploration examination of ourselves and our actions often written but also spoken ID: 247749

writing context reflective reflection context writing reflection reflective learning amp award account work skills edinburgh practice critical jasper process




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Reflection and

reflective writing



Institute for Academic Development

University of Edinburgh

November 2012Slide2

What is reflection?Exploration / examination of ourselves and our actions (often written but also spoken)considered

rational, unemotional*in relation to theory / wider context / other perspectivesWhy do it?to develop understanding / learning / skillsand give us a path by which to move forward*(even though it often deals with feelings, reactions and emotions)Slide3

The basics:Slide4

Borton’s (1970) cue questions:

(Cited in Jasper, 2003, p.99)Slide5

What does that mean?

Thinking and analysis

Drawing conclusions

Describing event or process

Future goals and actionsSlide6

Contexts and purposesEpisode / experience/ processShort/specific e.g. lesson we have taught, procedure we have carried outLonger process e.g. project work, group work, course, client-practitioner relationship

Critical incidentPositive or negativeOur own development, e.g. skills, strengths, challenges (may also be required for education or work)Slide7

What is a critical incident?Something that happened that is, in some way, significantFor you personally,Or in a wider contextand that you can learn from by considering it more deeply

It does not have to be earth-shatteringIt can be either positive or negativeSlide8

Skills involved

Self-awarenessDescription / factual reportingCritical analysisSynthesisEvaluation (Atkins and Schutz

, 2008, p.26)

Self-awareness is the main skill that is not usual in other academic writing.


Preparing: Focused free write

This technique can help you to start thinking freely about something.Start from the incident, experience, process you want to reflect on

Write for

5 -

15 minutes

without stopping

, just following your train of thought as if you are talking to yourself on paper

Don’t worry about grammar, spelling, punctuation or anything else

If you wander off the topic, don’t worry, just bring yourself gently back

When the time is up, skim through for any interesting/useful words, phrases, ideas or thoughts


idea of free writing, from which


free writing is adapted, was popularised by Peter



Exploring experience and perspectiveLook at the hand-outsTry one of the techniques (you will

not be asked to share what you have actually produced)Share with the group Which activity did you choose?What are your reactions to doing it?Slide11

Reflective journal

At the time Write a description as you see things nowInclude your feelingsNote down anything you might want to refer to as ‘evidence’Note questions or things you might want to explore if they occur to you

Later reflection

Look back objectively at what you wrote

Compare you now with then: changes?

Ask & answer critical questions

Relate to wider context

Justify what you say

Learning & moving forwardSlide12

Reflective writing assignmentsMay use specific model and follow that structureUsually follows basic phases

Descriptive (who? what? where? when?)Analytical & interpretive (why? how? so?)Looking forward (where/what now?) cf Borton (earlier)Or, more complex, e.g. GibbsSlide13

More structured e.g. Gibbs (1988)

(Cited in Jasper, 2003 .p.77 but, N.B. she puts description instead of analysis!)Slide14

Description Ability to give effective account > others understand what happened as you saw it:

Pick relevant, significant detail: right amountWriting = clear, concise, well structuredObjective rather than emotional: thoughts & feelings are recorded rather than colouring accountSlide15

Critical analysis/ evaluation

Aims for deeper understandingBreaking down into constituent partsIdentifying positives / negatives/ issuesIdentifying and challenging assumptions (self & other)Making connections (other experience, learning)Relating to external sources, e.g.

Theory, research, case studies, wider social/political/economic contextSlide16

Levels of reflection: 1Hatton and Smith's (1995) four levels of reflection, summarised by Gillett et al. as:descriptive writing (a straightforward account of events)

descriptive reflection (an account with reasons, justifications and explanation for the events)dialogic reflection (the writer begins to stand back from the account and analyse it)critical reflection (the writer puts their account into a broader perspective).(Gillett et al., 2009, p.165)Slide17

Levels of reflection: 2

Goodman’s 3 levels (1984) often referred to – roughly equate to:Largely descriptive; looking at practical things in terms of responsibility, accountability, efficiency ..Moving out from your particular experiences – relationship between theory and practice; broader implications, issues, values..Broadening out to consider implications in context of ethical / social / political influences

(Goodman, 1984, cited in Jasper, 2003, pp.72-75)Slide18

Graduate attributes

http://www.employability.ed.ac.uk/documents/GAFramework+Interpretation.pdf Slide19

Edinburgh AwardEmployers want graduates:who are self-aware, who

capitalise on their strengths, who will have impact wherever they work, who are committed to personal development and life-long learning, and who can confidently provide evidence for these claims. And that’s where the Edinburgh Award comes in… Slide20

Edinburgh Award: CARLFor reflecting on the skills/abilities you wanted to develop during the Award:Context – What is the context, e.g. what was your role and what was the skill you wanted to develop (and why)? Action

– In that context, what did you do to work towards developing the skill? Result & Learning – What were the outcomes of your actions? What went well? What stretched you? What didn’t work? What did you learn as a result? Why does it matter to you? How does it influence how you would approach something similar in the future? For reflecting on the impact you had during the Award:Context – What is the context, e.g. what was your role, its purpose and in what areas you were trying to develop personally?


– In that context, what did you do to try to have an impact?

Result & Learning

– What were the outcomes of your actions?

What impact did you have on the people and/or organisation(s) around you? Slide21

ReferencesAtkins, S. and Schutz, S. (2008) 'Developing the skills for reflective practice', in Bulman, C. and

Schutz, S. (eds.) Reflective practice in nursing. 4th edn. Chichester: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 25-54Elbow, P. (1973) Writing Without Teachers. New York: Oxford University PressGillett, A., Hammond, A. and Martala

, M. (2009)

Successful academic writing

. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited


Jasper, M. (2003)

Beginning reflective practice

. Cheltenham: Nelson



Moon, J.(2006)

Learning Journals: A Handbook for Reflective Practice and Development

. (2nd

edn.) London: RoutledgeSlide22

Websites for further information The University of Edinburgh’s Edinburgh Award:http://www.employability.ed.ac.uk/Student/EdinburghAward/

Reflective writing, university of Portsmouth: http://www.port.ac.uk/departments/studentsupport/ask/resources/handouts/writtenassignments/filetodownload,73259,en.pdf