Abstraction - PowerPoint Presentation

Abstraction
Abstraction

Abstraction - Description


Richard Gesick Abstraction the mechanism and practice of abstraction reduces and factors out details so that one can focus on a few concepts at a time The concept originated by analogy with abstraction in ID: 458642 Download Presentation

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data abstraction languages abstract abstraction data abstract languages programming control programmer level specification abstractions implementation object table objects type properties bits mathematics

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Slide1

Abstraction

Richard GesickSlide2

Abstraction

the mechanism and practice of

abstraction

reduces and factors out details so that one can focus on a few concepts at a timeSlide3

The concept

originated by analogy with abstraction in

mathematics

in both computing and in mathematics, numbers are concepts in the programming languages, as

found

in mathematics.

Implementation details depend on the hardware and software, but this is not a

restrictionSlide4

Data and Control Abstraction

Control abstraction

is the abstraction of

actions

Control abstraction involves the use of subprograms and related concepts control flows

data abstraction

is that of data

structures

allows handling data bits in meaningful ways. For example, it is the basic motivation behind datatypeSlide5

objects

an attempt to combine abstractions of data and code.Slide6

Abstraction in programming languages

Different programming languages provide different types of

abstraction

In object-oriented programming

languages

the concept of

abstraction

has itself become a declarative statement - using the keywords

virtual

or

abstract

and

interface

.

After such a declaration, it is the responsibility of the programmer to implement a class to instantiate the object of the declaration.Slide7

Abstraction in programming languages

Functional programming languages commonly exhibit abstractions related to

functions

lambda

abstractions (making a term into a function of some variable), higher-order functions (parameters are functions), bracket abstraction (making a term into a function of a variable).Slide8

Specification languages

Specification languages generally rely on

abstractions

specifications

are typically defined earlier in a project, (and at a more abstract level) than an eventual implementation.

The

UML specification language,

allows

the definition of

abstract

classes,

remain

abstract during the architecture and specification phase of the project.Slide9

Control Abstraction

Computer machines understand operations at the very low level such as moving some bits from one location of the memory to another location and producing the sum of two sequences of bits.

Programming

languages allow this to be done in the higher level. Slide10

a = (1 + 2) * 5

Without control abstraction,

a

programmer would need to specify

all

the register/binary-level steps each time

he/she

simply wanted to add or multiply a couple of numbers and assign the result to a variable.

Such

duplication of effort has two serious negative consequences:

it forces the programmer to constantly repeat fairly common tasks every time a similar operation is needed

it forces the programmer to program for the particular hardware and instruction setSlide11

Data Abstraction

Data abstraction enforces a clear separation between the

abstract

properties of a data type and the

concrete

details of its implementation.

The

abstract properties are those that are visible to client code that makes use of the data type—the

interface

to the data type—while the concrete implementation is kept entirely privateSlide12

Data Abstraction

one could define an abstract data type called

lookup table

which uniquely associates

keys

with

values

, and in which values may be retrieved by specifying their corresponding keys.

Such

a lookup table may be implemented

as

a hash table, a binary search tree, or even a simple linear list of (

key:value

) pairs.

the

abstract properties of the type are the same in each caseSlide13

In object-oriented programming

abstraction

involves the facility to define

objects

that represent abstract "

actors“

that can perform work, report on and change their state, and "communicate" with other objects in the system

Shom More....
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