CHAPTER 5 GLOBAL BUSINESS ETHICS
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CHAPTER 5 GLOBAL BUSINESS ETHICS

Global Business Ethics PRISMS. Should business be amoral (values-neutral)?. Are lobbying & campaign contributions a form of bribery?. Do the benefits of industry deregulation outweigh the costs?.

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CHAPTER 5 GLOBAL BUSINESS ETHICS




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Slide1

CHAPTER 5

GLOBAL BUSINESS ETHICS

Slide2

Global Business Ethics PRISMS

Should business be amoral (values-neutral)?

Are lobbying & campaign contributions a form of bribery?

Do the benefits of industry deregulation outweigh the costs?Which is more important: Profit maximization or avoidance of conflict of interest?

Slide3

Who should pick corporate board members?

Is capitalism any good without good people?

What do you do when the regulators have to be regulated?

Has the exception become the rule in American business?Do most powerful capitalist nations lack a sense of community?

Slide4

Is business ethics more legal or moral?

Should American business be more heavily regulated? Is the business community too flawed to police itself?Can private capitalism also serve the public interest?

Slide5

Capitalism is no better than

the capitalists, who are

seldom better than their culture.

As a nation goes, so goes capitalism.

Slide6

“Judaism, Christianity and Islam all affirm the right of individual ownership and private property, but there are moral limits imposed on absolute private ownership of wealth and property. Each of these religious traditions affirm that we are not individuals alone but exist in community—a community that makes claims upon us. The notion that “it is all mine” is a violation of these teachings and traditions.”

Slide7

ETHICS &

CAPITALISM

Slide8

BUILT-IN WEAKNESSES OF AMERICAN CAPITALISM THAT SPAWNED THE NEW MILLENNIUM BUSINESS SCANDALS

1. Profit maximization, single stakeholder capitalist ideology

2. Lobbying & campaign contributions

3. Deregulation (belief that markets adequately regulate themselves)4. Cultural emphasis on short-term performance5. Runaway individualism triumphing over community6. Amoral business operations (belief in the justness of the marketplace)

Slide9

SO IS CAPITALISM TRUSTWORTHY?

1. Capitalists, not capitalism, determine the social values & behavior of business. Whatever capitalists want capitalism to do, it will do.

2. Most capitalist business leaders are honest, well-intentioned people who try to do the right things in the right way. However, should the system sustaining capitalism be perverted by misguided politics or profiteering, society pays a price & capitalism gets a black eye.

Slide10

3. Business walks a thin line between serving the interests of society & exploiting society. When business & political leaders step onto the wrong side of the line, business & capitalism are thrown out of kilter, diminishing society’s trust in capitalism & democracy.

4. The bigger question from the standpoint of global business is whether or not the

world’s

trust in capitalism & democracy has also diminished.

Slide11

THE ETHICAL STAKES OF GLOBAL CORPORATIONS

1. Global corporations, the most powerful non-governmental entities on earth, are subject to even less ethical accountability than purely domestic companies.

2. Global companies can sometimes be non-patriotic soldiers of fortune that place economic self-interest over the needs of entire nations & citizens.

3. Furthermore, global corporations cater to government officials throughout the world in the pursuit of power & business opportunity.

Slide12

4. Additionally, global corporations are backed by the most powerful nations in the world and, to a significant extent, by global government organizations.

5. Thus, the potential for ethical misconduct or socially irresponsible behavior is even higher in global business than in domestic business—more power is involved & more people are affected.

6. Many people in the world, especially in developing nations, have serious reservations about Enron-era capitalism. Can Americans blame them?

Slide13

FOREIGNERS ELECTING AMERICAN CANDIDATES?

In 2010, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled for the first time that foreigners may make campaign contributions to American political candidates. “The more complicated questions is how to treat U.S. subsidiaries of foreign companies or American corporations that are controlled by foreigner investors.”

Slide14

LEGAL BUSINESS BRIBES

America’s financial sector spent more than $5B in lobbying & campaign financing in support of industry deregulation (which was the prime cause of the 2008 subprime mortgage scandal). Of the $5B, accounting firms spent $155M on campaign contributions & $383M on lobbying; brokerage forms spent $513M on campaigns & $600M on lobbying. Corporations covered all their political bases, giving 55% of the $$$ to Republicans & 45% to Democrats.

Slide15

THE NEW

MILLENNIUM

BUSINESS

SCANDALS

Slide16

Just since the year 2000, 642 business defendants in 290 separate cases of federal white-collar crime, with 250 guilty verdicts

CEOS of 25 different companies indicted

59 suits filed over two years against Wall Street brokerage firms due to alleged conflict of interest research opinions

Slide17

“In 2001 alone, 270 corporations fraudulently “restated” the numbers in their financial statements. From 1997-2001, a total of 1,089 companies apparently did so. All told, these transactions have cost investors billions of dollars. It increasingly appears that the economic “boom” of the 1990s may have been a house of cards built on fraud. The Pied Piper of the bull market and the elusive dream of endless profits put the economy and the culture into an addictive state of financial irresponsibility.”

Slide18

THE NEW ERA OF AMERICAN BUSINESS SCANDALS

Savings & Loan industry wipeout in the 1980s

Accounting manipulation scandals of the early 2000s

Mutual funds scandals of the 2000s

Slide19

Wall Street global mortgages & derivatives scandals of the late 2000s

Executive pay corruption of the 2000s

2000s systematic disassembling of business regulatory agencies & conflict-of-interest appointments of corporate executives as agency heads

Slide20

Unprecedented corporate influence peddling via mega-campaign contributions to federal & state politicians during the 2000s

Corporations electing to pay the damages of fraudulent practices instead of engaging in socially responsible business practices: Toyota, BP, investment banks

Slide21

Late 2000s scandals involving the

government clean-up of business damage to consumers & the environment: Hurricane Katrina, British Petroleum oil spill

In an 18-month period in 2010-2011, federal investigators convicted 36

investment “entrepreneurs,” including those fronting large hedge funds (“country clubs” of high-risk, high-return investments) with insider trading (using predatory fraud & deception to steal millions from major investors).

Slide22

HOW THE BUSINESS SCANDALS OF THE NEW MILLENNIUM ARE UNIQUE

The majority of them involved flagrant mutual cooperation between corporate executives, board members, CPA firms (regulators), politicians, & lobbyists—the entire financial infrastructure of America.

U.S. capitalism has rotted from within as the institutional infrastructure designed to safeguard shareholders has been systemically perverted & stockholders made victims of “drive-by shootings.”

Slide23

“Profit-maximizing capitalism & market deregulation have pressured executives to deliver quick returns on investments & to focus on strictly short-term performance. Faced with mounting pressures to make record profits & to take advantage of relaxed regulations, record numbers of executives haven’t been able to resist the unethical temptations to engage in or tolerate corrupt practices.”

Slide24

How long does it

take for an

amputated arm

to grow back?(Once a system has broken down, can it be repaired and made “like new” again?)

Slide25

AMERICAN ECONOMIC & SOCIAL EXPLOITATIVE SYSTEMS

(right click on title

& select “open hyperlink”)

Slide26

“We live with cultural pressures unrelentingly focused upon free market competition and consumption, as if the meaning of life is compete, consume, and die.”

Slide27

C21

ETHICAL LESSONS

Slide28

“We live with cultural pressures unrelentingly focused upon free market competition and consumption, as if the meaning of life is compete, consume, and die.”

Slide29

THE 21st CENTURY UNETHICAL ALLIANCE OF CAPITALISM

Self-serving CEOs

+

“Insider” boards (hand-picked by executives)+Unethical accounting firms+Irresponsible politicians

Slide30

How could BIGCPA think it was ethical to audit their own consulting clients? (The auditing divisions wanted to help the consulting divisions succeed)

Why didn’t the establishment attempt to block BIGCPA’s conflict of interest strategy? (Politicians were getting campaign contributions for deregulating the financial services industry)

Slide31

Why didn’t business schools set the record straight? (They wanted jobs for their accounting majors)

Why did corporate boards look the other way at accounting fraud? (Because they were “lapdog” boards chosen by corporate executives for their “good-ole-boy” loyalty & support)

Slide32

IS THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT PART OF THE SOLUTION OR PART OF THE PROBLEM?

Deregulation of the energy & financial services industries in the 1990s (including brokerage & currency exchange firms that surfaced in the financial scandals after 2000)

Under-funding of the Securities and Exchange Commission & IRS

Slimy campaign contributions by financial service companies

Slide33

ENRON’S POLITICAL MATRIX

“Enron turned the art of lobbying into a science through an ingenious software program it called the Matrix. Like the one in the movie, Enron’s matrix sought to control Washington politicians with a simple computer program. Every time a new piece of legislation or change in government policy loomed on the horizon, Enron programmers would log the info into their “matrix” to estimate the financial impact of on Enron’s operations. If the results were not to Enron’s liking, their well-funded lobbyists in Washington would swoop in like marauding Huns.”

Slide34

What do you do

when the

regulators have

to be regulated?

Slide35

“Over-scheduling fits right in with the mass consumer mentality. I’m busy, therefore I am, seems to define us. In order to validate our existence, we fill our lives with a lot of things to do and a lot of stuff to consume.”

Slide36

LAP Dog Boards

“Good ole boy” rubber stamp boards chosen by

company executives to avoid accountability

for their performance

Slide37

EXECUTIVE VIDEO-GAMESTERS

Many of the financial wheeler/dealers involved in the recent corporate scandals may have been driven by the mentality of video gamesters or computer hackers seeking to see just how far “creative” corporate finance could be taken—an experiment in pushing the boundaries of corporate finance & greed to unheard of levels.

Slide38

ELITE EXECUTIVES

The difference between the compensation of

corporate chief executive officers (CEOs) and the pay of factory workers is gaping and growing steadily in the United States. In 2001, executives of surveyed corporations in the United States made more than $11 million—some 350 times as much as the average factory worker (vs. 16 to 1 in Japan & 4 to 1 in Sweden.

Today, the U.S. gap is at least 10 times greater than the differential in other industrial nations, where tax laws and cultural norms have prevented huge increases in executive pay.The average executive compensation of $11 million in the United States compares with the average pay of factory workers of $31,260.

Slide39

The difference between the compensation of American corporate chief executive officers (CEOs) and the pay of factory workers is large & getting wider. In 2001, executives of surveyed corporations in the United States made more than $11 million—350 times as much as the average factory worker’s $31,260 annual pay . And this earnings differential grew more than fivefold between 1990 and 2001. In 2007, execs made 179 times more than “rank and file” workers. If the minimum wage had grown as fast since 1990, the minimum wage would now be almost $23 per hour.

Slide40

Between 1994 and 2007, executives pay increased $90 for every dollar gained by lower level workers. Today, the U.S. top-to-bottom pay gap is at least 10 times greater than the differential in other industrial nations, where tax laws and cultural norms have blocked huge increases in executive pay.

Slide41

Bonuses received by executives in America’s 100 largest corporation rose 46% from 2003-2004. The median bonus was $1.4M

Slide42

NEW SEC MANDATES

FOR REPORTING EXEC PAY

In an effort to more clearly and fully inform stockholders of the true compensation of executives, the Securities and Exchange Commission has mandated that the following information must be disclosed in annual reports of executive pay: salary, bonuses, stock awards, stock option gains, non-equity incentive plans, & misc. compensation. The new law makes it more difficult for corporations to hide unauthorized, hidden, or fraudulent forms of exec. pay.

Slide43

SOX

TO THE

RESCUE?

Slide44

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) of 2002 mandated rules of accountability for corporate executives, boards, & regulators that used to be taken for granted. The very concept of business professionalism

assumed

that executives were honest and looking out for company stockholders; assumed that boards were holding executives accountable; and assumed that financial regulators were holding corporations accountable. In the post-Enron era, these assumptions are no longer valid.

The newly created Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) is nothing more than a regulator for the regulators. Who will regulate the PCAOB?

Slide45

Under SOX regulations: (1) Auditors are prohibited from doing non-auditing work for clients; (2) Companies must establish independent audit committees; (3) Boards can’t make loans to executives; (4) Top executives must certify accounting reports upon their release [the infamous section 404; & (5) Employee “whistle-blowers” are extended more job security.

“Some studies have concluded that the costs of SOX (in the millions annually for most companies) far outweigh the gains & that SOX is especially burdensome for smaller companies.”

Slide46

World War III

in the New Millennium:

Global Ideological

Warfare

Slide47

THE 3 PILLARS OF AMERICAN CAPITALISM

Short-term profit (& operations efficiency) maximizationCorporation serves stockholder interests onlyValues neutrality (business doesn’t decide what products are good, the marketplace does)

Slide48

NEW IDEOLOGICAL QUESTIONS IN THE WAKE ON THE ENRON ERA

1. Have the Enron era ethics scandals soured

the world’s attitude on the American

“laissez faire” (individualist) capitalistsystem?2. Does C21 American capitalism lack a senseof community?3. Does short-term profit maximization/singlestakeholder capitalism promote unethicalbusiness behavior?4. Should the American business system be more heavily regulated?

Slide49

WW III: THE NEW MILLENNIUM'S EMERGING IDEOLOGICAL WARFARE

GAC (Global Anti-Growth Coalition) vs. Western capitalism

Many developing nations (the vast majority of the global population) feel victimized by the exporting of individualistic, laissez faire capitalist values

Slide50

WORLD CITIZENS ADMIRE AMERICA’S FREEDOM AND TECHNOLOGY, BUT NOT ITS SOCIAL VALUES:

% who feel the spread of

American values is bad for the world:

54% of Canadians 67% of Germans 71% of the French 84% of Egyptians

Slide51

Positive-Impacts

Action Strategy

for the

Value-AffirmingCorporation

Slide52

THE GLOBAL CORRUPTION INDEX

According to the Transparency Index, the most respected index of global corruption, Chad is the most corrupt nation to do business in, followed by Bangladesh, Turkmenistan, Myanmar, Haiti, & Nigeria. Other nations high on the corruption list include Kenya, Indonesia, Venezuela, Cambodia, Russia, Ecuador & Bolivia, & the Philippines.

Among the least corrupt are the Scandinavian nations, Singapore, Australia, Britain, Canada, Germany & the USA (ranked 17

th from the top).

Slide53

DOING YOUR ETHICS HOMEWORK

Negative impacts awareness report: Look at damage that could result unintentionally in developing nations (eliminating jobs with technology, putting domestic firms out of business, etc.)

Ethics operating environment report: Know how business is conducted in developing nations & “look before you leap.”Don’t go where you ain’t appreciated (so you can play by your own ethical rules rather than the often corrupt rules in non-institutional cultures.).

Slide54

ADVICE FROM LIZ MARAIST, ETHICS COMPLIANCE OFFICER FOR J. RAY MCDERMOTT

1.To successfully comply with Sarbanes-Oxley, every company should have a code of conduct for the following areas: conflict of interest; entertainment & gifts; procurement integrity; antitrust compliance; worker safety; environmental protection; integrity of records; data security & privacy.

2. The following actions promote successful implementation of corporate ethics programs: 24-hour employee ethics advisory hotline; transparent discussion/training regarding ethical issues the company wrestles with; grass-roots monitors of ethical practices; consistent & timely follow-up on all ethics problems.

Slide55

Don’t violate “arbitrary” laws (“everybody’s doing it.”)

Just because you can get away with it, doesn’t mean you should try

Slide56

ARBITRARY LAWS (unethical activities corporations know are illegal but sometimes engage in because “everybody else does it”)

Inside stock trading

Sweat shops

Polluting

Bribery

Using black market currency

“Social dumping” (manufacturing in nations with lax enforcement of laws designed to regulate business)

Slide57

ARTITRARY ETHICS

Don’t obey laws no one else obeys.

Cheat when other cheat.

You don’t have to break laws you helped get passed to benefit yourself.Giving money to politicians is legal, but not ethical.Boards are the ultimate good-old-boy network (fat cats helping each other get fatter).

Slide58

In today’s ethically schizophrenic culture, you have to know what your ethical standards are & assertively stand up for them when necessary.

Most professionals today resort to following external professional codes of ethics rather than internalized convictions

Most institutions go by the letter of the law rather than the spirit of the law.

Americans tend to value pragmatism (cutting ethical corners to get ahead) over principle (doing the right thing).

Slide59

What justice should look like:

Restitution Ethics Policy

Felons pay back their victims through

work restitution programs

Slide60

Jail is the

easy,

gutless

way out.Imagine if the $20,000+annual cost of each inmate in Texas prisonscould be used for the restitution of crime victims

Slide61

We are too flawed to police ourselves—

Triangulation

is mandatory:

(A) The government watching regulators watching companies (B) Employees watching their companies(C) The media watching the government & companies

Slide62

3 APPROACHES TO SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE GLOBAL INVESTING

1.

Screening

: Eliminating investments in global companies that engage in exploitative competitive behavior2. Shareholder advocacy: Investing in companies for the purpose of influencing its global behavior3. Community investing: Investing in local communities that are typically bypassed by institutional investors

Slide63

THE ETHICAL

DILEMMA OF

MAXIMIZING

STOCKHOLDERVALUE

Slide64

Do the USA & West have any

responsibilities to help alleviate AIDS & other epidemic diseases in Africa?

How does ideological capitalism (profit/efficiency maximization + commitment to stockholders only) keep American pharmaceuticals from donating the drugs?

Slide65

It’s not the company’s

$$ to give away.

It belongs to

stockholders.

Slide66

Merck pharmaceuticals did recently donate large amounts of a drug to stop “river blindness” (blindness spread by parasitical worms), helping to save the sight of 600,000 west Africans.

Slide67

The head of the World Council of Churches recently advocated that developing countries violate drug patents and copyrights if that is the only way people with AIDS and other virulent diseases can survive. International trade rules require WTO member nations to enforce drug patents, which usually drives up the price of these drugs beyond the reach of most of the world’s population. Nations which violate patents face economic sanctions from the WTO.

Slide68

Blackmarketing of products made in developing nations (Do you know where your clothes were made?)

The perverted MBA mentality of turning business into a video game of fast track career building, or the hacker’s mentality of “What can I get away with?”

Amoral values neutrality: corporations don’t take a stand on how worthwhile their products are—it leaves this up to the marketplace.

Slide69

THE CHALLENGE OF A LIFETIME

What will you do if you are an ethical person working in a corrupt system?

It all depends on how important your career is to you.

Slide70

CAPITALISM’S MISSING INGREDIENT: COMMUNITY

Slide71

Invisible capitalism impacts invisible vulnerable communities (home owners, the “working man,” middle class retirees living off meager Social Security, etc.)

Profit-seeking is intentional; benefiting communities is unintentional

Large corporations seek autonomy, not interdependency (accountability)

Business feeds off consumerism, which feeds off debt (financial services), which ruins communityGreed ultimately kills community

Slide72

LETTER TO THE EDITOR. Let’s call the $700 billion banking bailout plan just what it is — pure and simple theft. Stock market investors know the risks when they get involved. The investors who were fooled by the greedy investment bank CEOs should be the ones to foot the bill for the bailout plan, not taxpayers like me. The politicians who have openly stolen are thieves and don’t deserve to be re-elected. And since the rest of the industrialized world is being affected, additional bailout money will have to come from other nations to keep the US from damaging their economies. US sovereignty is being compromised by all of this indebtedness.

Slide73

ACES”

Anti-Community Exploitative Systems

(right click on title & select “open hyperlink”)

Slide74

CHANGING CAPITALISM TO BENEFIT A CHANGING WORLD

Slide75

Profit “satisficing,” not maximizing

2. Dual bottom lines: Profit for stockholders + service to

non-stockholders

3. Smaller companies = accountable capitalismA FEASIBLE ALTERNATIVE CAPITALIST IDEOLOGY?

Slide76

1. Tax-funded state colleges & universities have little latitude in spending money on anything but state-mandated budgeted items. Private universities, however, are free to spend as they please, because they operate according to their own priorities.

2. As the only independent school in the Big 12, Baylor University has autonomous control over its own decision-making, giving it the opportunity to spend on worthy community-outreach projects if it so chooses—without state restrictions. Baylor is free to serve whom it pleases.

Slide77

THE IDEALISTIC SOLUTION: WORK FOR OR START A PRIVATE COMPANY

1.Staying private enables you to

play by your own rules insteadof catering to whatever the ficklemarketplace wants.2.Private companies don’t haveto maximize profit in the shortrun & serve only stockholders.

Slide78

BUILT-IN ETHICAL ACCOUNTABILITY

IN SMALL BUSINESS

Unlike large, impersonal corporations, smaller companies must build a personal bond with their customers based on mutual trust & respect. Unethical behavior has no place in this relationship, because it destroys trust. Thus, small companies must enter into an accountability partnership with their various stakeholders (customers, financers, suppliers, etc.) which reduces the likelihood of unethical or exploitative business behavior. Large corporations are less accountable because of their economic power over stakeholders and capacity to conduct business in a largely anonymous, impersonal capacity.

Slide79

“We live with cultural pressures unrelentingly focused upon free market competition and consumption, as if the meaning of life is compete, consume, and die.”

Slide80

ETHICAL BUSINESS IS SUSTAINING & BUILDING COMMUNITY

Slide81

ETHICAL BEHAVIOR IS NOT DEFINED AS:

Obeying the law

Doing what others do

Maintaining a standardBeing niceMaking money legitimately

Slide82

ETHICAL BUSINESS PROFESSIONALS STRIVE TO:

Maximize the positive community impacts of business behavior

Minimize negative impacts of business behavior

Slide83

3 CONCEPTS OF BUSINESS ETHICS

Legalistic

Imaging

Community- building

Slide84

#1 LEGALISTIC ETHICS

Slide85

Laws

Courts

Trials & Suits Lawyers PR Media

Slide86

THE LEGALISTIC ETHICS GAME

Use the system for self gain

Abuse the system

Letter of the lawLoopholesLitigation

Slide87

Lawyers

Plea bargaining

PR

Time off for good behaviorRecycle back into the system & replay

Slide88

MOST COMMON LEGALISTIC

ETHICAL TENSIONS

Defining ethical behavior legally

Proving legal breaches Neutralizing the influence of vested interests

Slide89

Measuring the damage done by legal infractions

Tolerating lax ethical standards in many industries

Amoral capitalism

Slide90

#

2 IMAGING: False facades

Slide91

High social status of company

Hologram public image

PR good works

Insider awardsPR coup for your companyMaintenance of community violations in your company

Slide92

THE IMAGING ETHICS GAME

Advertising & PR image-building

Join self-aggrandizing elitist groups

Engage in publicized visible good worksReceive “community” awards from fellow elitistsRecycle & repeat

Slide93

MOST COMMON IMAGING ETHICAL TENSIONS

Self-focus > community focus

Using the system for self-gain rather than changing the system

Inconsistencies between company image & community practices

Slide94

#3 COMMUNITY-BUILDING ETHICS

Slide95

Community = all those directly & indirectly affected by the pursuit of self-interest

Slide96

CAPITALISTS ETHICALLY AFFECT

:

National governments

MarketsIndustriesCorporationsExecutives

Employees

Consumers

Economic communities

Social communities

Slide97

MOST COMMON COMMUNITY ETHICS OBSTACLES

Impersonal marketplace, profit maximization, stakeholder minimization

Amoral MBA mentality

Political power of corporationsIndustry oligopolies

Slide98

Colonialism & turbo-capitalism

VAC dominance by a few private interests

Uninformed consumers

National protectionismTrade wars

Slide99

COMMUNITY ETHICS COMMITMENTS

Commitment to multiple corp. constituents

Accountability to stakeholders

Profit satisficing in a multiple-gain system

Slide100

People before profit

Others before self

Sustainable incomes

Long-term profit > short-termClosed stock ownership to maintain idealistic values

Slide101

“Deregulated global business allows corporations to wander the globe in search of ever lower wages and laxer environmental standards.”

Slide102

INDIA’S TATA GROUP: GLOBAL COMMUNITY CAPITALIST

Slide103

The India-based Tata Group is a highly diversified global company that specialized in making small, affordable cars for developing nations. Founded in 1868 & controlled by charitable trusts, Tata “has long insulated employees from the greed that is sweeping the corporate world.” This stems from a unique multicultural operating approach:

Slide104

Buying companies in the global marketplace to improve their operations, not subject them to cost-cutting.

Forming a new multinational management community board to lead the acquired company made up of its executives combined with Tata executives.

Cultural differences between Tata-affiliated companies across the globe are smoothed over via tolerance of cultural differences & a culturally-accommodating professional environment.

Slide105

HOW TO BE LEGALLY UNETHICAL

Slide106

It is possible to be legally (obeying the law) unethical (harming community) simply by using existing imperfect exploitation systems that are legal, such as:

Buying political influence via large financial contribution to political action campaigns & lobbying.

Allowing top executives to pick their own board members.

Paying workers minimum, but not sustainable, wages. Taking advantage of business deregulation that reduces corporate responsibility towards community stakeholders.

Slide107

Using predatory, but legal, competitive tactics, such as price wars, buying out competitors, & selling below cost.

Off shoring manufacturing & closing domestic plants.

Engaging in highly leveraged business growth

Outsourcing illegal business behaviors at home, such as pollution, to foreign nations where such practices are unregulated.Personal workaholism and neglect of dependents (family).