Science from the Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring
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Science from the Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring

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Science from the Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring




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Presentation on theme: "Science from the Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Science from the Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring the Habitability of Europa D. Senske1, L. Prockter2, R. Pappalardo1, M. Mellon3, W. Patterson2, S. Vance1, B. Cooke1, and the Europa Study Team1Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, 2Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD, 20723, 3Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302.

1/31/13

1

Copyright 2012 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

Pre-Decisional — For Planning and Discussion Purposes Only

Slide2

Background

2

The NRC Decadal Survey deemed t

he Jupiter

Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission concept to be of extremely high science value, but unaffordable, and viable descoped options were requestedA 1.5 year study developed mission options that retain high science value at significantly reduced cost: the “Clipper”(multiple flyby), a simplified Europa Orbiter, and a Lander (report to NASA, May 2012)Focus now on Europa Clipper concept

Europa Lander

Europa Orbiter

The Europa Clipper

(Multiple-Flyby in Jupiter Orbit)

1/31/13

Copyright 2012 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

Pre-Decisional — For Planning and Discussion Purposes Only

Slide3

Europa Science:

Goal, Habitability Themes, and Objectives

Goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitabilityHabitability Themes: Water: Solvent to facilitate chemical reactionsChemistry: Constituents to build organic moleculesEnergy: Chemical disequilibrium for metabolismObjectives: Ocean: Existence, extent, and salinityIce Shell: Existence and nature of water within or beneath, and nature of surface-ice-ocean exchangeComposition: Distribution and chemistry of key compounds and the links to ocean composition Geology: Characteristics and formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity

water

chemistry

energy

habitability

3

1/31/13

Copyright 2012 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

Pre-Decisional — For Planning and Discussion Purposes Only

Slide4

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Europa Clipper: Science Investigations and Model Planning Payload

Science ObjectiveKey Science InvestigationsModel InstrumentSimilar InstrumentOcean & Ice ShellTime-varying gravity field through Doppler tracking, to detect ocean and determine interior structure. Radio Sub-system (RS); Independent Gimbaled AntennaMagnetic induction response, to derive ocean thickness and salinity. Local plasma and electric field, to support magnetic induction experiment.Magnetometer (MAG) with Langmuir Probe (LP)Juno MAGRosetta LAPSounding of dielectric horizons at two frequencies, to search for shallow water and the ocean. Ice-Penetrating Radar (IPR)MRO SHARADCompositionVisible and near-infrared spectroscopy, for global mapping and high-resolution scans, to derive surface composition.ShortWave IR Spectrometer (SWIRS)LRO M3Elemental, isotopic, and molecular composition of the atmosphere and ionosphere, during close flybys. Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS)NozomiGeologyMedium to High resolution stereo imagery, to characterize geological landforms, and to remove clutter noise from IPR data.Topographical Imager (TI)New Horizons Ralph/MVIC

Floor model instrument

Baseline model instrument

Copyright 2012 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

Pre-Decisional — For Planning and Discussion Purposes Only

Slide5

Europa Clipper Concept Summary

Jan. 2013

Science

:

Payload:

Technical Margins

48%

40%

62%

Mass

Power

Data

Shortwave Infrared Spectrometer (SWIRS)

Ice Penetrating Radar(IPR)

Topographical Imager (TI)

Magnetometer

(Mag)

Gravity Science Antenna (GS

)

Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS)

Langmuir Probe (LP) (x2

)

5

1/31/13

Operations Concept:32 low altitude flybys of Europa from Jupiter orbit over 2.3 yearsDetailed investigation of globally distributed regions of EuropaSimple repetitive science operationsAddition of high resolution reconnaissance camera and thermal imager

Thermal Imager(Thermal)

Recon Camera (Recon)

Copyright 2012 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

Pre-Decisional — For Planning and Discussion Purposes Only

Slide6

Innovative Mission Design

Dense, globally distributed network of intersecting ground tracks

Enables globally distributed coverage through multiple flybys

Minimizes time in high radiation environment

RadiationBelts

EuropaOrbit

Multiple Europa Flybys minimize radiation exposure

1/31/13

6

Flyby groundtracks

Copyright 2012 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

Pre-Decisional — For Planning and Discussion Purposes Only

Slide7

Model Instrument Surface Coverage

SWIR Spec. - Low Res

SWIR Spec. – High Res

Ice Penetrating Radar

Topographic Imager (altitudes ≤4000 km)

7

Copyright 2012 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

Pre-Decisional — For Planning and Discussion Purposes Only

1/31/13

––––––

25 – 400 km (primary data collection)

––––––

400 – 1,000 km (extended data collection)

High

-res swaths at better than 100 m/pixel

Slide8

Europa Clipper Operations ConceptSimple and Repetitive

8

1/31/13

Copyright 2012 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

Pre-Decisional — For Planning and Discussion Purposes Only

Magnetometer and Langmuir

Probes

Continuous

measurements

ShortWave

InfraRed

Spectrometer (SWIRS)

G

lobal low resolution scan below 66,000 km altitude

Targeted high resolution scan below 2,000 km altitude

Passive below 1,000 km altitude

Gravity Science

Measurements below 28,000 km

altitude

Topographical

Imager (TI)

Pushbroom

stereo imaging

below

1,000 km

altitude

Lower res.

p

ushbroom

imaging

between 4,000 and 1,000 km altitude

Ice Penetrating Radar (IPR)

Surface

scans below

1,000

km altitude

Mass Spectrometer (NMS)

In situ

scan below 1,000 km

altitude

Recon Camera

High resolution imaging below

105 km altitude

Thermal Imager

Pushbroom

thermal imaging

below 60,000 km

Slide9

Key Science Questions for Europa

Science QuestionObjectiveClipper1. What are the properties and characteristics of Europa’s ocean? Ocean ✓2. How thick is the icy shell? Ice Shell ✓ 3. Is there near-surface water within the ice shell? Ice Shell✓ 4. What is the global distribution of geological features? Geology✓ 5. Is liquid water involved in surface feature formation? Geology/Ice Shell✓ 6. Is the icy shell warm and convecting? Ice Shell✓ 7. What does the red stuff tell us about ocean composition? Composition✓ 8. How active is Europa today? Geology/Ice Shell✓ 9. What is the plasma and radiation environment at Europa? Ocean/Composition 10. What is the nature of organics and salts at Europa? Composition ✓11. Is chemical material from depth carried to the surface?Composition✓12. Is irradiation the principal cause of alteration of Europa’s surface material through time?Composition✓

9

1/31/13

Copyright 2012 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

Pre-Decisional — For Planning and Discussion Purposes Only

Slide10

Programmatic Need for Feed-Forward Reconnaissance Data Sets

Reconnaissance data is necessary to feed forward to a future lander mission: required to evaluate landing safety

10

Galileo PPR

Cassini Enceladus 4

m/pixel

1/31/13

Copyright 2012 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

Pre-Decisional — For Planning and Discussion Purposes Only

Observation

Purpose

High Resolution Imaging

Map block abundance.

Characterize

meter-scale surface roughness.

Stereo Imaging

Maps surface slopes

for

lander tilt hazard, terrain relative navigation.

Thermal IR Imaging

(Brightness Temperature and Bolometric

Albedo)

Verify visible block abundance & extrapolate to

submeter

scale.

Validate average surface roughness & extrapolate.

Identify regolith cover.

Slide11

Europa Clipper Configuration

1/29/13

11

Shortwave Infrared Spectrometer (SWIRS)

Ice Penetrating Radar(IPR)

Topographical Imager (TI)

Magnetometer

(Mag)

Gravity Science Antenna (GS)

Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS)

Langmuir Probe (LP) (x2

)

Thermal Imager(Thermal)

Recon Camera (Recon)

The technical data in this document is controlled under the U.S. Export Regulations; release to foreign persons may require an export authorization

Pre-Decisional — For Planning and Discussion Purposes Only

Slide12

High Gain Antenna

Avionics

Module

PropulsionModule

PowerSourceModule

Main Engine

ThrusterClusterAssemblies (x4)

Reaction Wheels (x4)

Avionics Vault

Star Tracker (x2)

ASRG (x4)

Fuel Tank (x2)

OxidizerTank (x2)

He PressurantTank (x2)

ASRG Control Electronics (x4)

Europa Clipper Spacecraft

Benefits of

Modular Configuration

Implementation flexibilityParallel integration pathsModule level integrated testing during Phase CIsolates implementation issues at the module levelRobust schedule managementDecouples qualification testing until late in integration flowAllows for integration of ASRGs at KSCSmooth funding profileMinimizes peaks in project funding profile Allows flexible phasing of module implementation schedules

1/29/13

12

The technical data in this document is controlled under the U.S. Export Regulations; release to foreign persons may require an export authorization

Pre-Decisional — For Planning and Discussion Purposes Only

Slide13

Radiation Mitigation Approach

Propellant

Tank Wall

Primary Structure

Vault

Chassis

Card Location

ß

2.1

Mrad

(End

of

Mission Total Dose)

900

krad

350

krad

Effective Shield Thickness

100 mil Al

200 mil Al

400 mil Al

600 mil Al

800 mil Al

1000 mil Al

150

krad

110

krad

80

krad

(End of Mission Total Dose

)

Resulting

End of Mission Dose

Allows use of existing industry geosynchronous class parts

1/29/13

13

The technical data in this document is controlled under the U.S. Export Regulations; release to foreign persons may require an export authorization

Pre-Decisional — For Planning and Discussion Purposes Only

Slide14

Power System Options

1/31/13

14

25.8 m

3.0 m

11.4 m

ASRG:

Advanced

Stirling

Radioisotope Generator

Recommended by Planetary Decadal Survey

Technical issues need resolution for compatibility

with Europa Mission

Reliability not yet demonstrated; high per unit cost

Solar:

Foldout Panel Solar ArraysTechnical issues must be resolved before determining feasibility for Europa MissionReliability uncertain in high radiation environment.Highest mass, lowest cost solution.

MMRTG: Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric GeneratorJEO baseline power source still feasible for redesigned Europa MissionHighest 238Pu usage; concern diminished by 238Pu production restartDemonstrated high reliabilityMass and cost impact bounded by Solar and ASRG

Copyright 2012 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

Pre-Decisional — For Planning and Discussion Purposes Only

Slide15

Europa Clipper Cost Estimates

1/31/13

15

Performed cost modeling as was done for NRC Planetary Decadal Survey (Aerospace CATE) in addition to other parametric models as a checkChanges from May 2012 to Oct. 2012 cost estimates:Updated Flight System cost estimates based on Oct. 2012 Master Equipment Lists (MELs)Updated instrument cost estimate for IPR based on independent assessmentUpdated instrument cost estimates for all other instruments using NICM (subsystem mode)Included additional instrument costs as applicable for Ocean Science & Recon Updated science and operations estimates

Cost: Phases A-F, no LV (FY15$)

ModelMay 2012: No Ocean Science or Recon(ASRG)May 2012: Aerospace CATE(ASRG)Oct. 2012:w/ Ocean Science & Recon(ASRG)PRICE-H$1.96B$2.11B$2.07BSEER-H$1.91B$2.11B$2.05B

Copyright 2012 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged

. The cost information contained in this document is of a budgetary nature and is intended for informational purposes only. It does not constitute a commitment on the part of JPL and/or Caltech.

Pre-Decisional — For Planning and Discussion Purposes Only

Slide16

Assessment of Clipper by NRC and NASA Committees

1/31/13

16

Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences (CAPS) Assessment to Planetary Science Subcommittee (PSS) (10/3/12):The Europa study team has developed excellent orbiter and flyby (“Clipper”) concepts that are robust and feasible, and are responsive to the Decadal Survey, the current budget constraints, and the need for balance in the Planetary ProgramThe multiple flyby “Clipper” element is favored because it addresses the preponderance of the science objectives laid out in the Decadal SurveyIndependent review by a CATE process (the same used in the Decadal Survey) affirms that the costs for the orbiter and Clipper are credible and that the risk is lowThe Clipper mission has excellent scientific valueClipper mission concept is well thought out and realisticRadiation issues have been well addressedHigh resolution imaging, if possible without significant growth in cost or complexity, would be an excellent “feed forward” element for a future lander mission

Copyright 2012 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

Pre-Decisional — For Planning and Discussion Purposes Only

Slide17

Europa Clipper

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