WEEK 13 – WAR,VIOLENCE AND MODERNITY (2): CIVIL VIOLENCE
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WEEK 13 – WAR,VIOLENCE AND MODERNITY (2): CIVIL VIOLENCE

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WEEK 13 – WAR,VIOLENCE AND MODERNITY (2): CIVIL VIOLENCE




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Presentation on theme: "WEEK 13 – WAR,VIOLENCE AND MODERNITY (2): CIVIL VIOLENCE"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

WEEK 13 – WAR,VIOLENCE AND MODERNITY (2): CIVIL VIOLENCE

Preliminary comments on Terrorism

Slide2

Terrorism

Weapon of desperation used by the weak

Opposed by many mainstream revolutionaries e.g. Lenin and Bolsheviks – tended to strengthen state, not weaken it

Rarely achieves its goals except:

To encourage repression – IRA 1970s; ‘Al Qaeda’

Assassination (not ‘terror’ as such)

Exerts an influence way beyond its reality – political effects

Threatened states infringe their own civil liberties

Tends to strengthen the threatened state (

cf

Tsarist Russia)

Terrorist’s chief weapon is often the enemy’s media as in

CharlieHebdo

Slide3

Terrorism Deaths Worldwide 1992-2005

Slide4

Worldwide deaths from Terrorism in 2013

Since 2005 figs have risen sharply to over 18,000 in 2013 mostly in Iraq and Afghanistan where they shade into guerrilla and civil war

Iraq 

— where 2,492 incidents in 2013 left 6,362 dead.

Afghanistan

 — where 1,148 incidents left 3,111 dead.

Pakistan

 — where 1,933 incidents left 2,345 dead.

Nigeria

 — where 303 incidents left 1,826 dead.

Syria

 — where 217 incidents left 1,078 dead.

 

Turkey

had 34 attacks and 57 deaths

United States

had nine attacks and six deaths.

The United Kingdom

had a high number of attacks (131), but most of these were small-scale attacks in Northern Ireland and left only three dead.

Israel

had 28 attacks in 2013 that left two people dead 

[Figs from Institute for Economics and Peace quoted by Washington Post]

Slide5

Muslim victims of al-Qaeda

Between 2004 and 2008 al-Qaida claimed responsibility for 313 attacks, resulting in the deaths of 3,010 people. And even though these attacks include terrorist incidents in the West -- in Madrid in 2004 and in London in 2005 -- only 12 percent of those killed (371 deaths) were Westerners.

between 2006 and 2008, non-Westerners were 38 times more likely to be killed by an al-Qaida attack than Westerners.

[

Der

Spiegel

based on figs from the Combating Terrorism

Center

(CTC) at the United States' Military Academy at West Point in New York]

Slide6

u

Slide7

Slide8

Gun deaths US vs deaths of US citizens worldwide from terror 2004-2013

Slide9

Road Deaths USA – selected years since 1945

YearTotal deaths194631,874195637,965197645,523197951,093 (peak)198945,523199941,717200933,808

Currently 1 death per 10,000 population per year

Slide10

Road deaths UK since 1925

2010 = 1 death per 25,000 of population

Slide11

Air accident fatalities since WW2

Slide12

Global Death Toll- Variety of sources (Oxfam March 2013)

Slide13

Future Terrorism

Hollywood nightmares

nuclear weapon (e.g. Disguised as freight container or ‘suitcase bomb’)

chemical agents – anthrax; botulism;

sarin

gas

contaminating water

cyberterrorism

Most of them either need

state-level involvement

(leads to fear of

‘rogue state’

) or threaten own aims and objectives

States are the most effective terrorists

e.g. Drones in the Obama years:

390 strikes – 2,5000 deaths – at least 250 civilians

Slide14

WEEK 13 – WAR,VIOLENCE AND MODERNITY (2): CIVIL VIOLENCE

Lecture One Civil and Revolutionary Violence 1789-1921

[

i.e. not state

vs

state violence

–war

Violence within a state]

Slide15

State

violence

(

often‘Legitimate

’)

capital punishment

corporal punishment

imprisonment, exile, transportation

police/judges/law

[Terror]

Zizek

– ‘objective’ violence; ‘structural’ violence – the necessary, everyday violence to maintain the status quo

Slide16

2.

Anti-state or intra-state violence

civil war

revolutionary violence

illegitimate’

terrorism

racial/ethnic violence

criminal (personal) violence (gangs, bandits, muggers, hooligans, etc.)

[struggles of this type often more heated than regular war]

Slide17

Not pursued in these lectures

3. Violence of nature (‘acts of God’)

wild animals (bears, lions, tigers, sharks, snakes, wolves, insects) note also violence

against

these creatures

climatic hazards (drought, flood, storm)

geological hazards (volcanoes, earthquakes, mud slides, tsunami)

Note that exposure to these conditions is socially conditioned as is -

Slide18

Malaria Deaths 2013

Some 200 million cases

Some 660,000 deaths

[World Health Organisation]

Slide19

4. ‘Economic’

violence

famine

death by interest rate / ‘laws’ of competition / economic structures

death by product (tobacco; baby milk; untested drugs)

‘accidents’

Disease

Also part of ‘objective’/structural violence

Slide20

Revolutionary Violence

French Revolution

Fall of Bastille (parading De

Launay’s

head: parading head and heart of other victims)

September Massacres (1789) - 2000 prisoners of all categories killed by insurgents

 

Jacobin Terror (16,600 executions nationwide including c. 2,500 in Paris) (cf. c. 4m. dead in Napoleonic Wars)

Slide21

Slide22

Slide23

Russian Revolution

 

Civil War (10 million deaths)

 

- mostly from cholera, typhus, influenza and starvation

 

- extensive atrocities (looting in Petrograd December 1917; armed grain requisition; peasant retribution)

 

- social dislocation e.g. urban depopulation (Petrograd 2.5 m. to 750,000);

 

- White

Guard anti-

semitism

-

at least 50,000, perhaps 200,000 deaths

Slide24

Interpreting Violence

1. Traditional Hostile

View

 

Burke (1790s)- ‘cruel ruffians and assassins reeking with....blood’

 

Hippolyte

Taine (mid 19th.c) ‘vagabonds, beggars, fugitives from justice

 

the mob’ ‘riff-raff’ ‘bandits’ ‘brigands

 

Thomas Carlyle - admires fight for freedom but fears anarchic mass

.

[Note French rev in British tradition usually seen in negative light as terror and tyranny- Scarlet Pimpernel, Dickens ‘Tale of Two Cities

’,

Hornblower

- very few sympathetic reflections]

Slide25

Slide26

Slide27

2. Making Sense of Violence

Albert

Soboul

(1964)

-

strategic significance

of the revolutionary ‘

journées

’ (days)

Bastille - saves Paris

September massacres fuelled

by fear of invasion

Terror - strengthens war effort

-weakens counterrevolution

Slide28

Edward Thomson (1963)-

‘rescue [lower classes] from the enormous

condescension of posterity….Their aspirations were valid

in terms of their own experience

Moral economy

of the masses.

[

cf

Clifford

Geertz

(1970)-

‘thick

description’

in anthropology

&

Subaltern Studies – revolution in understanding peasants (Vietnam war)]

George

Rudé

(1959)-

the crowd

Eric

Hobsbawn

Bandits

(1969)(‘social’ banditry or criminality?

Slide29

3. Revolutionary Violence as Response to State Violence

[Foucault (1960s - 70s)- state ‘invents’ forms of criminality -esp. over property - and forms of madness in order to lock up and repress the poor and rebellious in prisons and asylums]

 

Peter

Linebaugh

The London Hanged (1991)

- capital punishment as instrument of class war

 

Rise

of capitalism achieved by mass violence of state -

Highland

clearances: enclosures; repression of

resistance

(Anti-Combination Acts; transportation

)

 

in

The Many-Headed

Hydra’ (2001)

Linebaugh

and

Rediker

include slavery and slave trade - mythologizes joint resistance of victims - slaves; seamen; maroons etc

.

Slide30

Arno Meyer

The Furies: Violence and Terror in the French and Russian Revolutions

(2000)

-

‘The Furies of revolution are fuelled primarily by the inevitable and unexceptional resistance of the forces and ideas opposed to it’

‘the hecatombs of the foreign wars of the French and Russian revolutions exceed those of their civil wars, and yet the former are glorified and mythologized, the latter execrated.’

Slide31

Note also: Return of tendency to

stress

revolutionary violence

Bicentennia

l of French Rev.

Francois

Furet

& Mona

Ozouf

Simon

Schama

- ‘Citizens’ (1989)

Russian Rev

Orlando

Figes

- ‘A People’s Tragedy’ (1996)

(influenced by Maxim Gorky)