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New France Unit One Jacques Cartier

In . 1534. ,The king of France ordered . Cartier to explore . the new land to look for . two things. A . shipping route to the Orient . to allow the French traders to import silk and other fine products.

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New France Unit One Jacques Cartier






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Slide1

New France

Unit One

Slide2

Jacques Cartier

In

1534

,The king of France ordered

Cartier to explore

the new land to look for

two things

A

shipping route to the Orient

to allow the French traders to import silk and other fine products

Precious gems and metals

such as gold to make France rich

Within three weeks, Cartier landed in Newfoundland and continued to explore further inland to Prince Edward Island and the

Baie

de Chaleur.

He set up a large cross on Pointe-

Penouille

on the Gaspe Peninsula to show France’s claim to the “New World”

Slide3

Chief Donnacona

Chief

Donnacona

saw

Cartier’ship

and recognized and went to the ship to protest with his brother and sons

The French convinced

Donnacona

to let Cartier take two of his sons back to France to show the king.

Domagya

and

Taignoagny

returned in a year and their stories of being treated well

helped to establish a positive relationship between the St Lawrence Iroquois and the French.

In 1535-1536, Cartier explored the St Lawrence River, still looking for a path to the orient.

Donnacona

told him of “

the Kingdom of Saguenay

” where he would find

precious metals

Slide4

Hochelaga

Donnacona

told Cartier the stories of the Kingdom of Saguenay and referred to golden-haired people who had these precious metals.

Donnacona

told Cartier these stories in an effort to stop Cartier from going to

Hochelaga

.

There were divisions and conflicts among the Iroquois, called the

Haudenosaunee

.

Donnacona

wanted to control the trading

between France and New France

He was afraid that if Cartier made friends with the well established Iroquois community at

Hochelaga

, that might threaten his influence.

Slide5

Hochelaga

Donnaconna

would not let his two sons accompany Cartier

Cartier passed

Stadacona

(Quebec City) and went toward

Hochelaga

(Montreal) against

Donnacona’s

wishes.

Cartier’s trip to

Hochelaga

was not as successful as it might have been. He was unable to communicate with the Iroquois community and therefore very little was done.

Cartier spent the winter near

Stadacona

and almost all of the 110 men became sick with scurvy.

He learned from the Iroquois that drinking white cedar tree tea cured scurvy and all but 25 of the French men survived the winter.

Slide6

Return to France and the final voyage

Cartier needed to show the king that it was worth the effort to explore Canada,

so he captured

Donnacona

, his sons, and several other Iroquois in

hopes that they would tell stories of riches.

Unfortunately,

Donnacona

and all but one Iroquois had died.

In 1541-1542, Cartier’s final voyage took place.

The relationship between the First Nations people and the French had diminished since Cartier’s last voyage, when Cartier had denied

Donnacona’s

wishes and explored

Hochelaga

.

This time, Cartier found what he thought were diamonds, filled his boat and returned to France.

It turned out that these “diamonds” were quartz. He never again explored for France.

Slide7

Your FINAL term 2 assignment

As a class, we will be developing a History Wiki.

Each person

will be responsible for choosing

one

person or group to research and develop a page about. It is important that every one chooses a different group or person. We cannot have two people doing the same thing.

This is an individual assignment. I am not changing my mind.

You will be given a list to choose from and

on Tuesday you will submit your first and second choices of person or group to research

. I will then determine who is researching what and let you know.

There will be no changing topics after this point.

This will be a big part of your History Mark so although the due date will not be for some time, it is important that you get started on as soon as possible.

Slide8

Choices: submit first and second choice by Tuesday ( otherwise I will choose for you and you won’t get another say in the matter).

Jacques Cartier

Samuel de Champlain

Huron

Iroquois

Etienne Brule

Jesuit Priests

Jean de

Brebeuf

Ursuline Nuns

Marie Martin (

Guyart

)

Marguerite

Bourgeoys

Coures des BoisPeirre Esprit Radisson

Jacques Marquette

Seigneur

Habitant

Filles

du

Roi

Metis

Count Frontenac

Jean Talon

Francois Laval

Acadians

James Wolfe

Marquis Louis-Joseph de Montcalm

Slide9

Three motives for exploration

Curiosity

Opportunity to learn about the world

Commerce

Quick trade route (through the orient)

Make money through trade

Christianity

Opportunity to spread Christian faith to Aboriginals

Slide10

Historians

Part of being a good historian is being able to make inferences (guesses) about the past based on pictures

On the following slide you will see a picture:

It is one of a large collection of over 1000 historical works about Canada done by Dr. Charles W

Jerrferys

(1869-1951)

Jefferys

has a reputation for accuracy in presenting the historical costumes, equipment, and buildings of the time

Slide11

Slide12

Historical detectives

We do not have the details of the drawing, so we are going to have to act as detectives to interpret what is happening in the picture.

We will use the 5 W questions that reporters use to investigate an event

Who are the people in the drawing?

What are they doing?

Where does the drawing take place?

When did it take place?

Why is this action happening?

Slide13

Historical Detectives

Copy the chart below, then use the picture to fill it in

Be sure to include sound inferences, which have evidence from the drawing and other sources to back it up.

It should be

SPECIFIC

and

DETAILED

.

Inferences

Evidence

Who

What

Where

When

Why

Slide14

Picture Study:

You will be working in three groups of five

Group One

Group Two

Group Three

Yousef

Mahdi

Reem

Rayan

Hawraa

Hassan

Hamza

Serene

Mayah

Zeinab

Hadi

Jawad

Zaynab

Maye

Maya T

Slide15

Picture study instructions:

Each group will get 5 pictures and 5 “deciphering the explicit message” worksheets

Perform the same activity you did last class, answering the 5w’s about

each

of the 5 pictures

Who

are the people in the drawing?

What

are they doing?

Where

does the drawing take place?

When

did it take place?

Why

is this action happening?

Slide16

Background to the drawings

The Aboriginal peoples were a valuable source of information about

the local geography

and landscape for early European explorers and settlers. Aboriginal

people

accepted Europeans into their trading networks by providing trade goods

and

often food and transportation. Europeans likewise included Aboriginal people

into

their own networks of international trade by exchanging the furs that

Aboriginal

people trapped for metal goods, guns, beads (thought to have spiritual

value

) and other decorative objects. Europeans who went out to trade with

Aboriginal

people had a lot to learn about North American conditions, and often chose to adopt Aboriginal ways of life including taking an Aboriginal wife (usually

"

in the custom of the country" without a Christian marriage ceremony). Trading

dominated

relations among Aboriginal groups, with both British and French fur

traders

competing for their assistance. The English and French provided the

Iroquois

and Huron with guns and ammunition to gain control of increased trade,

and

wars and other conflict increased as a result. Disease, rather than warfare,

devastated

Aboriginal populations who had little immunity to European germs.

Slide17

Picture #2

Jacques Cartier:

Cartier

meets the Indians of the

St

. Lawrence, 1535

Jacques

Cartier left France for America in 1534. After surveying Labrador—which he described as

"

the land that God gave Cain"—he explored the Gulf of St. Lawrence. At a spot on

Gaspé

he raised

a

30­foot cross and claimed possession of the land in the name of the King of France. On returning

to France

he took with him two sons of Chief Donnacona of Stadacona (the future site of Quebec).

The

two sons survived the voyage and returned with him to Canada the following year. Cartier

sailed

up the St. Lawrence to Quebec, returning the two sons to

Donnacona

, then traveling as far

as

Hochelaga

(the future site of Montréal). He found a larger, more prosperous society there.

When

Cartier returned to

Stadacona

to winter, trouble arose between the two cultures, due in part

to

Cartier's failure to recognize

Donnacona's

rights to his land. Cartier built a fort in the area

despite

Donnacona's

protests. Although

Donnacona

gave considerable help to Cartier's men

throughout

the winter—helping them to survive both the cold temperatures and the scurvy that

killed

off some of the men—Cartier's attitude remained hostile. He kidnapped

Donnacona

and

(

again) his two sons, as well as seven other members of their band. All the Aboriginal hostages

died

. In his third journey, 1541, Cartier brought with him the foundations of a French

colony—settlers

, animals and the tools for construction and agriculture. Fifty of the settlers died over the

winter

from scurvy and another 35 were killed by Aboriginal people, hostile to Cartier's attitude

to

their people and their lands. Cartier and the surviving settlers returned to France

Slide18

Picture #3: Samuel

de Champlain

Samuel de Champlain trading with Natives, early 17th

Samuel de Champlain arrived at the St. Lawrence River

in 1603

, returning the next year to

establish

a settlement in what is now Nova Scotia. In 1608, Champlain established a trading

post

at Quebec, the first permanent French settlement in Canada. Once again the winter

proved

too harsh and 20 of the 28 men died

in

the first year. Like Cartier, Champlain believed that he was on land now claimed for France. Unlike Cartier, Champlain recognized the

advantages

that favourable trade relations might bring to France

Slide19

Picture Study #4

: Champlain taking

an observation with the

astrolabe, on

the Ottawa, 1613

Champlain relied heavily on information obtained from Aboriginal peoples. In fact, he was the

first

European explorer who used Aboriginal accounts and maps in his own maps and journals,

allowing him

to improve the accuracy of his writing, Champlain also believed that alliances with

certain

Aboriginal groups would benefit him and his people, making trade for furs easier and

ensuring

that France would be able to establish a permanent colony in New

France

. In exchange for knowledge and expertise in expanding the fur trade inland, Champlain provided military assistance to the Algonquin in their conflicts with the

Iroquois.

Slide20

Étienne Brûlé

(Picture study #5: Étienne

Brûlé

at the mouth of the Humber,

1615)

Étienne

Brûlé

came from France with Champlain in 1608. In 1610 he went to stay with the

Hurons

and learned their language. He lived and travelled among the

Hurons

for many of the

next

twenty years. He is thought to be the first European to reach all

of the Great Lakes and acted as Champlain's guide and interpreter on his trips in this region. It is thought that in 1632 or 1633, he was killed and eaten by

Hurons

, even though cannibalism was rare among these

people

. At the time

Brûlé

was viewed as a

traitor

by the French because he had been helping

the English.

Slide21

Pierre-Esprit Radisson

(

Picture study #6: Radisson meets the Indians in a winter camp,

1660)

Pierre -Esprit

Radisson came to New France around1651. A year later, while out hunting, he was

captured by

a Mohawk band and taken to their community. He was treated kindly by his

captors

and was "adopted" by an elderly couple who had lost their own son. In an effort to

escape

, Radisson killed three Mohawk men as they slept. He was soon caught, but was not

killed

or tortured by the Mohawks because his adopted father, who was a powerful chief, got

him

pardoned, Radisson eventually escaped and over the next eight years had many adventures as he traveled, traded and fought alongside the Aboriginal people. Radisson

reported in his

journal

that he made a great impression at an Aboriginal feast. He appeared in a

colourful

costume

, sang and threw gunpowder in the fire, and handed out gifts as he spoke to the

gathering

. In 1660, after getting in trouble with the

Governor

of New France for trading without

a

permit, he left for Europe only to return some years later as a trader for the newly formed

Hudson's

Bay Company. Radisson eventually settled in London, England and died in his

seventies

in 1710.

Slide22

Implicit Messages

The 5W questions focus on the obvious interpretation of the drawings.

The implicit, or disguised, message reveals the artists values and attitudes towards the figures and events in the drawings

.

Every time we look at something, it is always from a “point of view”. Take a look at the pictures on the next page and see how the image changes quite a bit from the two different points of view.

Slide23

Slide24

Point of View

When an artist draws a picture, it is from a particular point of view

.

Consider the following two titles for the image:

A Jesuit Preaching to the Indians

The Algonquin allow the priest to explain his religion

What is the difference in the point of view?

Slide25

Point of View

Inference

The dominant point of view of the drawing is the European perspective

Evidence

Sole priest is dominant figure in the picture

Action revolves around the priest, the aboriginal people are just listening

Dark robe draws attention to the priest

Slide26

Character Traits

Inference

Priest is moving

Priest is bold

Priest is charismatic

Aboriginals are passive

Aboriginals are awed

Aboriginals are attentive

Aboriginals are being influences

Evidence

Action of picture revolves around priest

Only one European in picture

He has a serious look on his face

Looks like the aboriginals are listening

They are sitting/standing still

Seem glued to his every word

Staring intently at the priest

Not objecting or asking questions

Looking at the character traits of the priest and Aboriginals can add to our evidence

Slide27

Symbolic Message

Inference

-bringing Christianity to the aboriginals

-lone voice of morality among the “uncivilized” Indians

Evidence

The cross (symbolizes Christianity) high above the heads of everyone

Aboriginal people seem accepting

There are many aboriginal and only one priest

Aboriginal clothing leaves most of the body uncovered

When creating a drawing, an artist may also include a symbolic message, showing that the image of symbolizes a larger issue (good vs evil, courage, struggle

etc

)

Slide28

Implicit Message Activity

Using the pictures from our previous picture study, you will determine the implicit message behind the image.

Fill out the sheet with inferences and evidence using the handouts and your text book

. You will only receive one class period to complete this activity. Use your time wisely.

Serene and Maye (Picture 2)

Reem and

Hawraa

and Hamza (Picture 3)

Jawad

and Hassan (Picture 4)

Mahdi and

Hadi

(Picture 5)

Yousef and

Zaynab

(Picture 6)Zeinab and Mayah

(Picture 6)

Maya and Rayan (Picture 4)

Slide29

KWL

K: Something you knew before this lesson (about implicit messages)

W:Something you are wondering because of this lesson

L:Something you learned during this lesson

Slide30