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Overview of Artificial Intelligence (1)Artificial intelligence (AI)Computers with the ability to mimic or duplicate the functions of the human brainArtificial intelligence systemsThe people, procedures, hardware, software, data, and knowledge needed to develop computer systems and machines that demonstrate the characteristics of intelligenceSlide4
This gives us four possible goals to pursue in
Systems that think like humans.
Systems that think rationally.
Systems that act like humans
Systems that act rationallySlide5
Overview of Artificial Intelligence (2)Intelligent behaviourLearn from experienceApply knowledge acquired from experienceHandle complex situationsSolve problems when important information is missing
Determine what is important
React quickly and correctly to a new situation
Understand visual images
Process and manipulate symbols
Be creative and imaginative
Artificial Intelligence Currently, no computers exhibit full artificial intelligence (that is, are able to simulate human behavior). The greatest advances have occurred
in the field of games playing. The best computer chess
are now capable of beating humans. In May, 1997, an
called Deep Blue defeated world chess
champion Gary Kasparov in a chess match. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NJarxpYyoFI&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nvkXyjfl_pY&feature=fvsr
From Chapter 1Slide8
Artificial Intelligence (3) In the area of robotics, computers are now widely used in assembly plants, but they are capable only of very limited tasks. Robots have
great difficulty identifying objects based on appearance or feel, and
they still move and handle objects clumsily.
From Chapter 1Slide9
Artificial Intelligence (4) Natural-language processing offers the greatest potential rewards because it would allow people to interact with computers without
any specialized knowledge.
computers to understand natural languages has proved to be more difficult
than originally thought. Some rudimentary translation systems that translate from one human language to another are in existence, but they are not nearly as good as human translators. There are also voice recognition systems that can convert spoken sounds into written words, but they do not understand what they are writing; they simply take dictation. Even these systems are quite limited --
you must speak slowly and distinctly.
From Chapter 1Slide10
Artificial Intelligence (5) In the early 1980s, expert systems were believed to represent the future of artificial intelligence and of computers in general. To date, however, they have not lived up to expectations. Many expert
systems help human experts in such fields as medicine and
engineering, but they are very expensive to produce and are helpful
only in special situations.
Today, the hottest area of artificial intelligence is neural networks,
which are proving successful in a number of disciplines such as voice
recognition and natural-language processing.
From Chapter 1Slide11
Artificial Intelligence (6) There are several programming languages that are known as AI languages because they are used almost exclusively for AI applications. The two most common are LISP and
From Chapter 1Slide12
Brain Work http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/java/ready.htmlSlide13Slide14
Left vs. Right Brain http://www.perthnow.com.au/fun-games/left-brain-vs-right-brain/story-e6frg46u-1111114517613Slide15
Convex or Concave?Slide16Slide17