0 Timeline of key events in the Arab-Israeli conflict

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0 Timeline of key events in the Arab-Israeli conflict

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Timeline of key events in the Arab-Israeli conflict

Israeli independence

War of 1948

Law of Return

Suez Crisis

June War

UN Resolution 242


PLO Founded

Camp David


Invades LebanonPLO moves to Tunis

Jordan relinquishesWest Bank claim

Madrid summit

Oslo peacenegotiations begin

First intifada(1988-1992)

Nasser diesBlack September/PLO moves to Lebanon

Likud Victory in IsraelSadat goes to Israel



Yom Kippur War














Wye Accords


Camp David II

Al-Aqsa intifada begins

Gaza withdrawal

Barrier built



The rise of Likud in 1977Success of the Likud coalition led by Menachem Begin“Revolt of the Sephardim” Expansionist idea of IsraelSadat goes to IsraelProclaimed peace with Israel at a meeting of the Israeli parliament in 1977 (Knesset)Tried to hold out for a comprehensive Palestinian settlement, but got a bilateral accordSigned an Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty in Washington in 1979 (Camp David)Israelis in LebanonPLO entered Lebanon in 1970 and launched guerrilla raidsLebanese Muslims supported them, but Christians fought themIsrael invaded Lebanon in 1982First intifada (1987-1991)Likud Prime Minister in Israel from 1986-1992 = Yitzhak ShamirShamir was highly expansionistPut severe economic and political stress on the Palestinian populationCharacteristics of the intifadaBirth of Hamas (Zeal) in 1988PLO accepts UN Resolution 242 and Israel’s right to exist, calling for a peace conference and proclaiming an independent Palestinian stateIsraeli tactics of mass punishment and overwhelming force escalated the intifada

The rise of the Likud, Camp David, and the Intifada

Yitzhak Shamir

Menachem Begin



Madrid (1991)US/Soviet sponsored peace talksSticking point of the talks was mainly illegal Israeli settlement activityYitzhak Rabin elected as leader of the Labor party in 1992—put a partial freeze on settlement constructionOslo I (1993)Emerged as a secret deal facilitated by Norway between Rabin and ArafatArafat had lost his funding (Gulf/Soviet) and was desperate at home; he was being seriously challenged by HamasAgreed to mutual recognition as peace partners, PLO renounced use of terrorAgreed to a five year program for increasing Palestinian autonomyOslo II (1995)Arafat returned to PalestineIsrael-Jordan signed a peace deal in 1994Interim agreement (1995) detailed staged withdrawal of Israeli troops, leaving pockets of Palestinian autonomyIsrael resumed large-scale settlement activitiesArafat’s new administration (Palestinian Authority) was corrupt and uncompromising

The peace talks



Palestinian AuthorityComposed mainly of exilesElection of a Palestinian Council (1996) made little difference to the new President (Arafat) who ruled in an authoritarian mannerIncreasing opposition by Hamas, which was gaining new popularityIsraelTried to get Arafat to crack down on Hamas and be more authoritarianRecognition that the peace accords were not increasing security at homeOpen pressure from Rabbis saying that the peace accords violated Jewish lawIncfreasingly militant Israeli actionsIn 1996, Israelis elected the Likud chairman, Binyamin Netanyahu as PM--stopped Israeli commitment to the peace processHamas carried out more suicide bombings, and Israel responded with collective punishment

Palestine and Israel in the late 1990s

Yasser Arafat



Wye River MemorandumGot Netanyahu and Arafat back to try to revive the peace process in 1998Israeli 1999 elections and Camp David II1999 elections brought Labor leader Ehud Barak to the table as Prime Minister, who had to deal with an extremely divided parliamentBarak pulled Israeli troops out of Lebanon in 2000Went to Washington to a major peace conference with Arafat in summer 2000Second intifadaLikud leader Ariel Sharon made a very provocative visit to Muslim areas of Haram al-Sharif in 2000, which started off Palestinian rioting and the second intifadaSharon became PM in 2001 campaigning on a platform of security firstSecond intifada driven by fragmented Palestinian groups/militias, including HamasArafat was under siege by the Israeli military and couldn’t really do anything at all

Developments from the Late 1990s



Arafat diesIn 2004 of unknown causesReplaced by a moderate leader of Fatah in Jan 2005 elections, Mahmoud Abbas, who the Israelis think they may be able to work with a bit; Abbas was Arafat’s deputyAbbas was the main architect of the Oslo peace process on the Palestinian sideBuilding the West Bank BarrierDecision by the Sharon government in 2002 and still underwayIsraeli targeted attacks on militant leaders/suicide bombingsAssassination of Hamas leader Sheikh Yassine in 2004Hamas ceasefire, then attacks from Gaza, decided to compete in January electionsIsrael withdraws from GazaMovement of some Israeli settlers out of Gaza in 2005Creating a rift in the LikudHamas wins the Palestinian electionsGets a majority of seats in the 2006 electionsHamas government starved by Israeli and US isolationAttempts at a unity government break downPalestine fragments into two territories under different control

Recent developments



Anwar SadatCamp David AccordsSabra and ShatilaYitzhak ShamirIntifadaHamasUN Resolution 242Madrid Peace ConferenceYitzhak RabinOslo Peace AccordsPalestinian Authority (PA)

Key lecture terms—October 10 and 12





River Memorandum

Ehud Barak


al-Sharif/Wailing Wall

Ariel Sharon





West Bank Barrier



Salam Fayyad



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