Forecasting Weather

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Forecasting Weather. Now that Meteorologists understand the factors that affect weather they must put all of this together to create . weather maps. and to determine . weather patterns. .. Together weather maps and weather patterns are very helpful in . ID: 504748 Download Presentation

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Forecasting Weather




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Presentations text content in Forecasting Weather

Slide1

Forecasting Weather

Slide2

Forecasting Weather

Now that Meteorologists understand the factors that affect weather they must put all of this together to create

weather maps

and to determine

weather patterns

.

Together weather maps and weather patterns are very helpful in

forecasting

the weather.

Slide3

Weather Maps

Graphically show temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed/direction, cloud cover and relative humidity.

Also shows:

A

ir masses

Fronts

hazardous conditions

Created by putting together

data

from thousands of

weather stations

from all across the

world

.

Slide4

Weather Map

Slide5

Map Symbols

Map symbols are used to help identify the conditions reported from each weather station.

Slide6

Other Symbols

Slide7

Weather Movement

Weather moves

from

areas of

high

pressure

to

areas of

low

pressure within

air masses

.

A huge body of

air

that has similar

temperature

,

humidity

and

air pressure

throughout it.

Classified by two characteristics:

Temperature

humidity

Warm or cold air masses depend on the

temperature

of the

region

over which the air mass

forms

.

Slide8

Air Masses

4 general air masses

Polar

(P)

From the

poles

to

60°

N or S latitude.

Very

cold

air mass.

Tropical

(T)

From the

equator

to

25°

N or S latitude.

Warm

to

hot

air mass.

Continental

(c)

Over any large

land mass.

Dry

air mass.

Marine

(m)

Over any large

body of water

.

Wet

air mass.

Slide9

Combining Air Masses

Maritime Tropical

(

mT

) – warm, humid air masses that form over oceans near the tropics.

Summer = hot and humid weather

Winter = humid conditions that bring rain or snow.

Maritime Polar

(

mP

) – cool, humid air masses that form over the icy cold North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans.

Affect the West Coast more than the East Coast

Summer = cool, humid air brings fog, rain and cool temperatures to the West Coast.

Slide10

Combining Air Masses

3.

Continental Tropical

(

cT

) – Hot, dry air masses that form only in the summer over dry areas of the southwest and northern Mexico.

Cover the smallest area of all air masses!

4.

Continental Polar

(cP) – cool to cold and dry air masses that form over central and northern Canada and Alaska.

Winter = clear, cold and dry air to much of North America.

Arctic Air Masses

(A) – bring bitterly cold weather with very low humidity.

Polar Vortex

Slide11

North American Air Masses

Slide12

Fronts

An area where

two

air masses meet and tend to not

mix

due to differences in

temperature

and

density

.

Warm

air masses =

low

densities and

rise

Cool

air masses =

higher

densities and

sink

Colliding air masses often cause

storms

and

changeable

weather.

4

Types:

Cold Front

Warm Front

Stationary Front

Occluded Front

Slide13

Front Symbols

Slide14

Types of Fronts

Cold Fronts – cold air masses meet and push under a warm air mass.Violent storms occur followed by fair, cool weather.Cumulonimbus Clouds

Slide15

Types of Fronts

2. Warm Fronts – warm air masses overtake a cold air mass and moves over it.Rain is followed by hot, humid weather.Cirrus clouds followed by stratus clouds.

Slide16

Types of Fronts

3. Stationary Fronts – warm air mass meets a cold air mass and no movement occursRain may fall for many days.

Slide17

Types of Fronts

4. Occluded Front – A fast moving cold front overtakes a warm front, lifts it quickly causing large scale precipitation.

Slide18

Understanding Weather Maps

X

cP

Slide19

Understanding Weather Maps

What is the temperature in Pittsburgh?What is the wind direction in NY City?What type of front is moving into X?What weather conditions should they be expecting?What is the wind speed at X?What type of air mass is moving into Pittsburgh?

78°F

SE

Warm

Rain, hot & humid

20

cP – Continental Polar

Slide20

Cyclones & Anticyclones

Cyclones

– areas of

low

pressure

(

L) that contain

rising

warm air.

Greek for “

wheel

”.

Cooler air will move in and take the place of the warm air causing air currents to spins

counterclockwise

causes

rainy, stormy

weather.

Anticyclones

high

pressure centers (H) of cold, dry air.

Winds spiral

clockwise

causing

clear, dry, fair

weather.

Slide21

Cyclones & Anticyclones

Cyclone

Anticyclone

Slide22

Hazardous Conditions

Causes great

human suffering

and

death

.

Responsible for sever damage to the environment, infrastructure of cities and town and private property.

Types of Hazardous Conditions:

Thunderstorms

Hurricanes

Tornadoes

Winter Storms

Slide23

Thunderstorms

Thunderstorms form after

severe heating

of

Earth’s surface

.

Form within large

cumulonimbus

clouds when warm air is forced upward at a cold front.

Causes

convection currents

.

Internal

friction

is created within these convection currents causing

electric charges

in the clouds.

Lightning

is the discharge of the electric charges.

Thunder

is the

sound

that rapidly heated air, from lightning, causes as it

expands

suddenly and explosively.

Mechanical Energy

Slide24

Slide25

Tornadoes

Develop in

low

,

heavy

cumulonimbus clouds during

spring

and early

summer

often in late afternoon.

Rapidly whirling,

funnel-shaped

clouds that are short lived and develop over land from severe thunderstorms

.

Cyclone – counterclockwise rotation

Over a lake or ocean =

waterspout

Occur

ONLY

in the

United States

The Great Plains has the greatest occurrence of tornadoes and is called “

tornado alley

”.

Slide26

Slide27

Slide28

Slide29

Hurricanes

A tropical storm that has winds of

119

km/hr or

higher

and is about

600

km across.

Develops over

warm

water as a

low

pressure area or

tropical

disturbance.

Gets its energy from the warm, humid air at the ocean’s surface.

Winds spiral inward,

cyclone

, toward the area of low pressure.

Lowest air pressure in a hurricane is found in the center,

the eye

.

Storm Surge

– the dome of

water

that is pushed ashore where a hurricane lands.

The cause of most

damage

and

death

!

Slide30

Slide31

Hurricane Categories

Slide32

Winter Storms

Snow falls when

humid

air cools below

0

°C.

Lake-Effect Snow

is caused when land loses heat

faster

than

water

and a dry, cold air mass it picks up water vapor from the warmer bodies of water.

Oswego, NY

is one of the snowiest cities in the United States.

Receives an average annual snowfall of over

200

”.

Slide33

Average Snowfall in New York


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