34K - views

What is Persuasive Writing?

Argumentative writing. Used to convince the reader to believe the writer’s view point on a debatable issue. Want to convince the reader to do something or believe something. Persuasive Writing Must….

Embed :
Presentation Download Link

Download Presentation - The PPT/PDF document "What is Persuasive Writing?" is the property of its rightful owner. Permission is granted to download and print the materials on this web site for personal, non-commercial use only, and to display it on your personal computer provided you do not modify the materials and that you retain all copyright notices contained in the materials. By downloading content from our website, you accept the terms of this agreement.

What is Persuasive Writing?






Presentation on theme: "What is Persuasive Writing?"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

What is Persuasive Writing?

Argumentative writing

Used to convince the reader to believe the writer’s view point on a debatable issue

Want to convince the reader to do something or believe somethingSlide2

Persuasive Writing Must…

Know both sides of an argument

Present both different sides then TAKE A STAND

Give evidence to back up your position

Offer more than one reason

Save the best argument for last

Tone is important for this type of writingSlide3

Where do we see it?

Essays

Debates

Informational writing

Articles

Court cases

Studies or investigations (science) Slide4

Where else do we see

p

ersuasive language?

Commercials

Documentaries

Political speeches

Protests and demonstrations

Interviews on the newsSlide5

Watch Severn Suzuki’s Speech

David Suzuki’s daughter at 12 years old

Spoke to the United Nations Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992

She and 3 classmates from Vancouver fundraised to attend the conference

Watch, try to pick out some reasons her speech is effective

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d1I6ljzaY9k&index=4&list=PLYe9yW1cgGG1ifpSkv6K3ZzgDzmMQ-sg0

(5 min)Slide6

Using Rhetoric and Effective Speech Delivery

Adapted from

Dr

. Lisa

WatsonSlide7

Persuasive Appeals

“People buy on emotion and justify with facts”

-Bert Decker

Ethos

the credibility or character (ethic) of the speaker

Speaker’s own expertise, pedigree, objectivity, intelligence, etc.

The appeal to authority

Credibility of expert sources as support

Pathos

The emotional appeal

Striking an emotional chord with audience (e.g., empathy, indignation, etc.)

story telling, evocative examples, analogies, choice of language

Logos

The appeal to logic & listeners’ rational side

Statistics, facts and analogous examples (e.g., historical, literal) as supportSlide8

The 5 Canons of Rhetoric

Invention

: Developing and refining arguments

Consider your audience, evidence, types of appeal, order, format

Arrangement

: Organizing arguments for maximum impact

Introduction & establishing credibility, establishing context as necessary, constructive arguments, addressing weaknesses, memorable conclusion

Memory

: Not needing notes increases credibility

Leave your audience with something memorable

Build a treasury of quotes, facts & anecdotes to include in speeches

Style

: Using language to make people want to listen

correctness, clarity (simple, strong, short), vivid description, propriety

(context

), clever use (using double meanings, alliteration, metaphor, etc.)

Delivery

: Strategic choices around how to deliver a speech

body language, eye contact, enunciation, use of gestures, pausing, match pace to emotion, varying force, tone & inflection of voice, etc.Slide9

Rhetorical Devices: Structural

Epigraph

Quote set at the beginning of a work or section of a work to set a tone or suggest a theme

May also take the form of a rhetorical question or statement

Theme

Central or dominant idea or concern of a work

Your core message (e.g., impact, benefit, paradigm shift)

Foreshadowing

Hinting at or presenting things to come in a story

Various forms of the recommendation first approach

Juxtaposition

Placing two items side by side for effectSlide10

Rhetorical Devices: Linguistic

Anaphora

regular repetition of the same word of phrase at the beginning of successive sentences or clauses

e.g., We are thorough. We are driven. We are right.

Alliteration

repetition of same initial consonant (or any vowel) in proximal words

e.g., this solution is practical, principled and profitable

Asyndeton

removing conjunctions (often replaced with pauses)

This man was negligent, thoughtless, unethical.

Parallel structure

Using syntactically similar grammatical structure

e.g., “I once was lost, but now I’m found”, the costs far outweigh the benefitsSlide11

Rhetorical Devices: Substantive

Analogy

A comparison of two different things to make a point about their similarity (can include metaphor and simile)

Used to communicate new, complex or controversial ideas

e.g., business and war, “band-aid” solutions, throwing a monkey wrench in the system

Personification/animism

Giving something inanimate human or

animal

characteristics

e.g., numbers don’t lie, profits will soar

Axiom

Statement that is regarded as true or self evident

e.g., “He who fails to plan, plans to

fail”

Aphorism

Short memorable philosophical statements designed to illustrate a commonly held belief

e.g., “Hire slowly, fire quickly”, “A business that makes nothing but money is a poor kind of business”

Adage: an aphorism that has gained credibility through longevity

e.g., “Don’t count your chickens before they’re hatched

”Slide12

Vocabulary & Phrasing Examples

Maintain an appropriate level of formality to be taken seriously

You or your firm instead of you guys

Enunciate clearly and finish all words

Going to instead of

gonna

Use

strong language

Recommend, demonstrate and prove instead of feel

Will do instead of

kinda

, maybe,

sorta

, like

Use active voice

Somebody killed him instead of he was killedSlide13

Analyze Severn Suzuki’s Speech

We’ll watch it one more time

How does she use Ethos, Pathos, and Logos?

Pick out some examples of rhetorical devices

Structural

Linguistic

Substantive

Then you’ll work in your groups to fill out the analysis worksheet, using a transcript of the speech

Find specific examplesSlide14
Slide15

Passion & Conviction

Show conviction in everything you say, even if you don’t believe it

It has to sound like you prepared your own speech and are speaking straight from the heart

Makes you memorable

What is going to make judges remember what you had to say instead of your competitors?Slide16

Style & Delivery Reminders

Vocabulary

Short, simple, strong

Correct, clear, clever

Vividness

Voice modulation

Gestures

Develop a rapport with the audience

Eye contact,

humour

, etc.Slide17

Use of Voice

Modulation (volume and pitch)

project without yelling

use inflection or tone to emphasize key points

The poignant pause

Not just to gather thoughts, but to drive points home

Pace

persuasive speeches generally average about 150 words per minute (25 words per 10 seconds)

more sounds glib, less sound preachy

Slow down to make serious, controversial, or complex points

Speed up slightly to inspire and incite emotional response

Knowing how to combine all of these techniques for full emotional impact is an art form

Variance is necessary, but it really has to be the right typeSlide18

Gestures & Body Language

Stance

Don’t cross anything (including legs) when speaking

Posture

Generally stand tall with head up

Can slouch (deflate) to make a point

Eye contact

This may mean getting very good at looking at tops of heads

Gestures

Hand gestures to reinforce key points

Inclination or shaking of head

Active use versus nervous ticks

Facial Expressions

turn a plain speech into an emotional and convincing one

confusion, disappointment, enthusiasm, conviction, etc.Slide19

Presidential Debate Speeches

Persuasive techniques in action

First presidential debate 2012