Health assessment - PowerPoint Presentation

Health assessment
Health assessment

Health assessment - Description


R espiratory system Introduction Respiratory system Exchange of gases in the body Intake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide Central nervous system Functions Maintains acidbase balance ID: 510686 Download Presentation

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thorax respiratory anterior continued respiratory thorax continued anterior slide posterior abnormal palpation assessment lung pleural configurations techniques chest lines

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Slide1

Health assessment

R

espiratory

systemSlide2

Introduction

Respiratory system

Exchange of gases in the body

Intake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide

Central nervous system

Functions

Maintains acid–base balance

Maintains body fluids

Assists with speechSlide3

Anatomy and Physiology Review

Upper respiratory tract

Nose, mouth, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, proximal trachea

Lower respiratory tract

Distal trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, muscles of respiration, mediastinum

Respiratory cycleSlide4

Anatomy of the respiratory system.Slide5

Anatomy and Physiology Review

Thorax

Closed cavity containing the structures needed for respiration

Mediastinum

Heart

Trachea

Esophagus

Major blood vessels

Pleural cavities

continued on next slideSlide6

Anatomy and Physiology Review

Thorax

Thoracic cage

Bones

Cartilage

Muscles of the thoraxSlide7

Lower Respiratory Tract

Trachea

16–20 rings of hyaline cartilage

Bronchi

Main bronchus enters each lung at the

hilus

.

Terminal bronchioles less than 0.5 mm in diameterSlide8

Lower Respiratory Tract

Lungs

Cone-shaped, elastic, spongy, air-filled structures in pleural cavities

Right lung has three lobes, left lung has two.Slide9

Lower Respiratory Tract

Pleural membranes

Thin, double-layered serous lining

Surface tension created by fluid and negative pressure between membranes keeps lungs expanded.

Mediastinum

Middle section of thoracic cavity

Surrounded by right and left pleural cavitiesSlide10

Landmarks

Bony structures

Sternum

Angle of Louis

Clavicles

Ribs

Vertebral column Slide11

Landmarks

Horizontal and vertical lines

Anterior, posterior, and lateral sections

Division of the thorax

Anterior

Imaginary vertical lines

Sternal

Midclavicular

Anterior axillary linesSlide12

Landmarks

Division of the thorax

Posterior

Imaginary vertical lines

Vertebral

Scapular

Posterior axillary

continued on next slideSlide13

Landmarks

Division of the thorax

Lateral

Imaginary vertical lines

Anterior

Posterior

Midaxillary

Slide14

Lines of the anterior thorax.Slide15

Lines of the posterior thorax.Slide16

Lines of the lateral thorax.Slide17

Lobes of the lungs: Posterior view.Slide18

Lobes of the lungs: Anterior view.Slide19

Lateral view of lobes of the left lung.

continued on next slideSlide20

Lateral view of lobes of the right lung.Slide21

Special Considerations

Age

Developmental level

Race

Ethnicity

Work history

Living conditions

Socioeconomic status

Emotional wellnessSlide22

Lifespan Considerations

Infants and children

Change from intrauterine to

extrauterine

breathing

Use of abdominal muscles for breathing during infancy and early childhood

Costal breathing expected after age 7

Smaller airways more prone to blockage

continued on next slideSlide23

Lifespan Considerations

The pregnant female

Muscles and cartilage of the ribs relax.

Inspiratory capacity increases.

Expiratory reserve volume is decreased.

Total lung capacity remains the same.

Oxygen consumption can increase by 20%

Mild respiratory alkalosisSlide24

Lifespan Considerations

The older adult

Decrease in respiratory efficiency

Changes in respiratory depth

Decrease in cough ability

Increase in respiratory rate

Anxiety and physical exertion can cause significant demands.

Increased effect of infectionSlide25

Psychosocial Considerations

Exacerbation of respiratory problems

Stress

Anxiety

Fatigue

Pain

Certain drugs used in the treatment of respiratory disorders may cause hands to tremble.Slide26

Cultural and Environmental Considerations

Race

Ethnicity

Presence of allergens

Socioeconomic status

Incidence of respiratory diseases

Geography and environment

Temperature, moisture, altitude, and pollutionSlide27

Focused Interview

Consider patient's ability to participate

If patient is experiencing dyspnea, cyanosis, difficulty with speech, or anxiety, attention must focus on relief of symptoms and restoration of oxygenation.Slide28

Focused Interview

Focused interview questions

General

Illness or infection

Symptoms, pain, behaviors

Age

Infants and children

The pregnant female

The older adult

EnvironmentSlide29

Assessment Techniques

Inspection

Palpation

Percussion

AuscultationSlide30

Assessment Techniques

Observation of skin color

Inspection of the anterior and posterior thorax

Symmetry

Configuration

Respiratory rateSlide31

Assessment Techniques

Palpation of the posterior thorax

Ribs

Intercostal spaces

Respiratory expansion

Tactile fremitus Slide32

Patient positioned and gowned for assessment.Slide33

Pattern for palpating the posterior thorax.Slide34

Palpation for respiratory expansion.Slide35

Palpation for tactile fremitus using metacarpophalangeal joint area.Slide36

Assessment Techniques

Percussion of the posterior thorax

Lungs

Diaphragmatic excursionSlide37

Pattern for percussion: Posterior thorax.Slide38

Diaphragmatic movement, percussion.

continued on next slideSlide39

Diaphragmatic movement, measurement.Slide40

Assessment Techniques

Auscultation of the posterior thorax for sounds

Tracheal

Bronchial

Bronchovesicular

VesicularSlide41

Pattern for auscultation: Posterior thorax.Slide42

Normal Breath SoundsSlide43

Adventitious Breath SoundsSlide44

Assessment Techniques

Auscultation of voice sounds

Bronchophony

Egophony

Whispered

pectoriloquy

Palpation of the anterior thorax Slide45

Assessment Techniques

Palpation of the anterior thorax

Sternum

Ribs

Intercostal spacesSlide46

Palpation of the anterior thorax.Slide47

Palpation for respiratory expansion: Anterior view.Slide48

Palpation for tactile fremitus: Anterior thorax.Slide49

Pattern for percussion: Anterior thorax.

continued on next slideSlide50

Pattern for percussion: Left lateral thorax.Slide51

Auscultatory sounds: Anterior thorax.Slide52

Normal and Abnormal Respiratory Rates and Patterns

continued on next slideSlide53

(continued)

Normal and Abnormal Respiratory Rates and Patterns

continued on next slideSlide54

(continued)

Normal and Abnormal Respiratory Rates and PatternsSlide55

Normal Chest Configurations

continued on next slideSlide56

(continued) Normal Chest Configurations

continued on next slideSlide57

(continued) Normal Chest ConfigurationsSlide58

Abnormal Chest Configurations

continued on next slideSlide59

(continued) Abnormal Chest Configurations

continued on next slideSlide60

(continued) Abnormal Chest Configurations

continued on next slideSlide61

(continued) Abnormal Chest ConfigurationsSlide62

Abnormal Findings

Respiratory disorders

Asthma

Chronic

hyperreactive

condition

Atelectasis

Obstruction of airflow

Bronchitis

Inflammation of the tracheobronchial treeSlide63

Asthma.Slide64

Atelectasis.Slide65

Chronic bronchitis.Slide66

Abnormal Findings

Respiratory disorders

Emphysema (obstruction of the alveoli)

Pneumonia (infection if the alveoli)

Pleural effusion (fluid in the pleural space)Slide67

Emphysema.Slide68

Lobar pneumonia.Slide69

Pleural effusion.Slide70

Abnormal Findings

Respiratory disorders

Pneumothorax (collapse of the lung)

Congestive heart failure (edema around the alveoli)

Valley feverSlide71

Pneumothorax.Slide72

Left heart failure.

Shom More....
By: celsa-spraggs
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Type: Public

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