Arab-Israeli Conflict

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Arab-Israeli Conflict




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Arab-Israeli Conflict

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1897 The World Zionist Organization was foundedZionists believed that Palestine was rightfully the homeland of the Jews

Zionism

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During World War I the British made three incompatible promises about the Middle EastHussein-McMahon Correspondence: 1915-1916 Arabs were promised an independent state across the Middle EastSykes-Picot Agreement 1916: the British and French would divide the area of the Ottoman Empire and decide the boundaries of the statesBalfour Declaration: Stated that the Jews could have a national home in Palestine provided they would not step of the rights of the existing inhabitants.

Origins

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Balfour Continued: The British hopedTo gain the support of Jews within the Central PowersTo gain the support of Jews in the U.S.

Origins

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In 1919, the population of Palestine was 90% Arab. British officially took control of Palestine under a League of Nations Mandate in 1920Zionists turned toward immigration to try to change the demographicsAnti-Jew riots held in Jerusalem in 1920 in response to the Balfour DeclarationBritish introduced quotas on Jewish Immigration stop the problemQuotas were high and problem continued

Palestine under the British Mandate

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In 1921, Palestinian protests continuedFailure of the British to honor the Sykes-Picot AgreementContinuing influx of JewsIn 1922, the British promisedThere was no intention to hand over the whole Palestine to the JewsThere would be no infringements of the rights of native Palestinians

Palestine under the British Mandate

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British tried to set up a legislative council containing both Arabs and JewsArabs would not give the Jews a guaranteed and disproportionate voice in the governmentBritish set up a commission in 1929 to look at the causes of Palestinian violence (Peel Commission)Found that ArabsDid not accept the British Mandate, wanted indepFeared the loss of their land to the JewsDesired the withdrawal of the Balfour Dec.Wished to prohibit the sale of any more land to the Jews

Palestine under the British Mandate

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As Hitler came to power, Jews began to flock to PalestineIn 1936, Arab Revolt beganGuerilla resistance against the BritishWanted independence, end of land sales to Jews, and end to Jewish ImmigrationPeel Commission recommended that Palestine be partitioned80% to the Arabs and 20% to the JewsArabs resisted because the Jews would be awarded the best farmland and saw no reason to give up any part of their homeland

Palestine under the British Mandate

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Sept 1937-Jan 1939British lost control of Jerusalem, Nablus, and HebronBritish now were the targetsBritish Tried to restore orderCivilians were used as hostages to provide coverDemolished Arab homes10% of the Palestinian population was killedJews 400 killedBritish 200 killed

Arab Revolt

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To gain Arab support in 1939, the BritishLimited to Jewish Immigration to 10,000/yearLimited the land purchase of JewsPromised to set up an Arab state of Palestine within 10 yearsAnti-Semitism of the Nazi’s appealed to the PalestiniansZionists decided that British power was waning and would seek the support of the USA in the futureSome appealed to Hitler to push the British out so they could set up their own homeland

WWII

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Arabs were assured by Roosevelt and Truman that no post-war settlement of Palestine would be madeWithout full consultation with the ArabsAgainst the interests of the Arabs

WWII

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In January of 1944, the Jewish National Military Organization (Irgun Zvai Leumi) called upon Jews of Palestine to drive out the British and install a Jewish GovernmentBritish police stations were attackedNov. 1944 the British Minister in Cairo was murderedWith the end of the war, there were large numbers of European Jews seeking a new homelandU.S. and Europe did not want them unless they were wealthy, famous, or well qualified

Jewish Revolt

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Arab League promised to prevent the formation of an exclusively Jewish state in Palestine (March 1945)In April of 1946, David Ben-Gurion demanded the right of 1.2 million Jews to settle in PalestineHagganah had grown into a semi-professional army, together with Irgun; a terrorist campaign against the British and the indigenous Arab population began

Jewish Revolt

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Most famous atrocity was the blowing up of the British Military HQ in the King David Hotel on July 22, 1946. Nearly 100 killedJuly 30, 1946 the Morrison Plan was published40% Arab17% Jewish43% including Jerusalem under direct British controlJews rejected the plan as offering too little of Palestine

Jewish Revolt

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Feb. 15, 1947 the British invited the United Nations to solve the problemBritish Mandate was to expire in 1948The United Nations appointed a special committee on Palestine which was not recognized by the PalestiniansAugust of 1947 the UN proposedPartition of Palestine. Half to Jews Jews made up one-third of the population and owned 6% of the land)Economically, Palestine would be a unitBritish would administer for 2 more years under the UNDuring that time 150,000 Jews were to be admitted

United Nations Intervention

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Reasons for the UN Plan:Feeling of guilt towards the JewsLarge numbers of dispossessed European Jews seeking a new homelandWestern countries did not want to take Zionists portrayed Palestine as the only refuge for Hitler’s victimsTruman wanted the Jewish vote in New York and pressured the British to allow 100,000 Jews to immigrateU.S. pressured nations to vote for partition by withholding economic aid

United Nations Intervention

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Jews outwardly accepted the settlement, Arabs refused to accept the settlementArabs were blocked from taking the issue to International CourtUN voted in November of 1947. U.S. and Soviets pressured smaller countries to support the planPlan passes 33-1310 abstain

United Nations Intervention

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Following UN intervention, Jews prepared for armed conflictDavid Ben-Gurion instructed Hagganah to go on the offensive and push Palestinians out of the territory proposed by the UNPalestinians began to fight for their land in December 1947 –resented the impending loss of half of their homelandRiots broke out across Arab lands against JewsThe Arab League proclaimed jihad against the JewsIsraelis began to import fighter aircraft from Czechoslovakia

Origins of the First Arab-Israeli War

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February , Jews drove out Arabs from part of Jerusalem and moved settlers in to take their placeIn the Spring, Hagganah implements Plan DaletOccupy areas allocated to the Jews but also Jewish settlements outside of that areaApril 15th, Irgun deliberately massacres 250 people (mostly women and children) Dayr Yasin MassacreBodies were mutilated and disposed in wellsThe Jews broadcast their actions to create an exodus of Arab inhabitantsJews seized their land, houses, and possessions

Origins of the First Arab-Israeli War

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May 15th, David Ben Gurion declared the independence of the state of IsraelPromised equality of political rights to all regardless of religion, race, or genderHagganah was transformed into the Israeli armyUnlimited Jewish immigration was announcedDavid Ben Gurion was Prime Minister and Minister of WarThe U.S. recognized the new state of Israel 11 minutes into its existence

Creation of the State of Israel

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On the same day, the Egyptian air force bombed Tel Aviv (no deaths) and Iraqi troops crossed the JordanMost of the fighting took place on territory that was to be part of Palestine In May, after 4 weeks of fighting, the Swedish proposed a truceNeither side accepted the Swedish proposalDavid Ben Gurion had to fight off challenges to his powerTruce ended because Syria and Egypt were unwilling to extend it

Creation of the State of Israel

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Second war lasted from July 6-19 and led to a crushing Arab defeatIsrael took over much of western GalileeSecond truce was imposed by the United NationsIn October, the Israelis invaded NegevControlled by Egypt but awarded to Israel in the partition planOctober, The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem was elected by the National Palestinian Council to be the head of the government of all of PalestineAll Arab nations recognized this action except King Abdullah of Jordan (his enemy)

Creation of the State of Israel

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King Abdullah held his own conference announcing…Palestine and Trans Jordan was a single entity- “Arab Hashemite Kingdom”Palestinians would be elected to the parliament in AmmanKing Abdullah wanted control over the Palestinian landsIsrael was willing to work with himOctober 21st- Israel prohibited non-Jewish Palestinians from visiting or living in certain areas of Israel without a permitAllowed the Israeli military to expel Palestinians from these areas

Creation of the State of Israel

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January of 1949, Israeli law stated that all meat coming into the country had to conform to the Jewish religious laws.State was taking on a religious character

Creation of the State of Israel

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Arab armies were poorly equippedBritish withheld spare partsJews were well supplied by the Czechs, Zionists in the USA, and EuropeArab forces were inexperienced and poorly coordinatedRivalries between Arab leadersJews had their government and army in existence and were prepared for warPalestinians were suffering from British repression of 1936-1939 which had hurt their leadership

Reasons for Israeli Victory

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Israel seized more land than had been awarded by the UNJerusalem was divided between Israel and JordanIsrael held 78% of PalestineNearly 1million Arabs fled to Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon where they lived in refugee campsDec. 1948, UN passes a resolution that allows refugees wishing to return to their homes and live in peace should be permitted to do so. Compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to returnIsrael ignored

Consequences of the First Arab-Israeli

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United Nations Refugee and Works Administration for Palestinians was est.It looked after30,000 Arab refugees who had fled Israel and couldn’t return to their homes because they had been seizedPalestinian refugees who had fled to areas under Arab controlIt providedReliefHealth careSocial servicesEducation

Consequences of the First Arab-Israeli

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No Arab state recognized the legitimacy of the State of IsraelThe British, Americans, and the French guaranteed the new borders of Israel and promised to sell limited arms in the region

Consequences of the First Arab-Israeli War

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Passed laws designed to make it impossible for dispossess Palestinians to ever take back their homes and landDeliberately and systematically bulldozed many Arab villagesInvited Jewish settlers from all over the worldLaw of Return (1950): Jews everywhere had the right to live in IsraelAlong the border areas, some 5,000 Palestinians were killed by Israelis between 1949-1956

Israel During the late 1940’s and 1950’s

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Most Arabs lived in the border areas of Israel. These areas were ruled by martial law until 1966Most of the land was placed under the ownership of the Jewish National Fund which prohibits it sale or lease to non-Jews foreverGovernment spending was spent on Jewish settlements, keeping Arab villages in a state of underdevelopmentBetween 1948-1957 some 567,000 Jews were expelled from Arab states in reprisal for the expulsion of the Palestinians. Most settled in Israel

Israel During the late 1940’s and 1950’s

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Egypt was under British controlBritain considered the use of the Suez Canal vitalSuez Canal Company was owned by mainly British and FrenchDuring WW II Britain took control of Egypt and made it into a British baseEgyptians began to resent British control and were humiliated Most Egyptians were poor landless peasantsLand was owned by a tiny number of richKing Farouk was uninterested in the plight of his countrymen

Suez Crisis

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USA wanted to establish Middle East Defense Organization (MEDO) to resist communismEgypt rejects MEDO and rejected British control.Initiated Guerilla attacks in on the Canal Zone1952 Gamal Abdul Nasser led a coup to over throw King FaroukNasser was part of a group that established the Society of Free Soldiers in 194Fight political corruption, depose the King, end British dominationModernize Egypt, raise standard of living, Arab Unity

Suez Crisis

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In 1953, the monarchy was abolished and a one party republic was establishedCommunists were suppressed as was the Muslim BrotherhoodNasser will become prime minister after a power struggleNasser wantsTo end British colonial ruleEnd the existence of the state of IsraelTo follow a policy of non-alignmentArab Unity

Suez Crisis

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1956, Nasser announces a socialist Arab stateOne party, Islam was the official religionU.S. and Great Britain agreed to finance the first part of the Aswan High DamHoped to form ties to keep Communism out of EgyptNasser encouraged guerrilla bands of fedayeen to attack IsraelWanted to recover their homes from Jewish settlersIsrael will retaliate by attacking groups of refugees in Egypt

Suez Crisis

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Nasser wanted to eradicate colonialism and create Arab UnityNasser opposed CENTO (only Pakistan and Iran joined)Nasser decided to arm Egypt because Israel and France were working around arms agreementsEgypt concludes arms deal with Czechoslovakia and officially recognized the People’s Republic of ChinaU.S. pulls funds for Aswan High DamNasser nationalizes the Suez Canal to finance the building of the dam

Suez Crisis

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British believed that Egypt was trying to build a unified Arab kingdom under the influence of communismThis would threaten their oil supplyBritish, French, and Israelis discussed an attack on EgyptOctober 29th 1956, Israel attacked EgyptCaptured the Sinai Peninsula within a week.

Suez Crisis

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British and French issued an “ultimatum” for both sides to withdrawEgypt refused the ultimatumBritain and France then bombed Egyptian airfields and landed troops at the north end of the canalAttack caused world outcryAmerica was afraid it would push Arab states to communism, refused to support Br, Fr, and IsU.S. joined U.S.S.R demanding withdrawalSoviets were dealing with the Hungarian Revolt but threatened to use ICBM’s on Britain and France

Suez Crisis

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ConsequencesNasser remained in power, his prestige increased among the Arab nationsDisruption of international tradeReduced oil exports to the westBr. And Fr. Influence in Middle East reducedEisenhower Doctrine (U.S. will use force to contain communism in Mid East)UN forces reopened the canal for shipping

Suez Crisis

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Significance of the Suez WarIt was part of the continuing struggle between Israel and the Arab statesDemonstrated that Israel had established itself as a state and had the ability to expand its territoryEntry of the Arab-Israeli conflict into the cold war

Suez Crisis

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CausesEgypt was encouraging guerillas to attack villages across the border and Israel was retaliatingIsrael was looking to expand into the West BankEgypt blocked the Straits of Tiran from Israeli shipping1967 Nasser asked the UN to remove peacekeeping troops from the Gaza StripNasser was under pressure from other Arab Nations Egypt, Jordan, and Syria began to concentrate troops on their borders with Israel

Six Day War

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Course of the WarIsrael pushed for American support of an attackIsrael appointed Moshe Dayan as Defense Minister (Symbol of the Suez Campaign)In an element of surprise, Israel attacked the air force of Egypt on June 4th, 1966Obliterated the Egyptian Air force, ground troops would have no air supportJordanian troops attacked, Israel was able to gain East Jerusalem and moved into the West BankJordan accepted the UN cease-fire on June 7thEgypt accepted the cease fire on June 8th

Six Day War

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Syria accepted the cease fire on June 9th but Moshe Dayan wanted an opportunity to confront SyriaDayan ordered an all out assault on Golan HeightsJune 10th, the Six Day War endedResultsIsrael acquired the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, Jerusalem and West Bank from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria

Six Day War

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Results: UN Security Council Resolution 242Demanded the withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territory it recently occupiedGuaranteed freedom of navigation through all international waterways in the regionA just settlement of the Palestinian refugee problemGuarantees of territory for every state in the regionArab refugees of the Gaza Strip and West Bank found themselves under Israeli ruleCommunist block broke off diplomatic relations with IsraelU.S. backed Israel

Six Day War

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The AftermathSporadic fighting continued along the bordersPalestinians formed the Popular Front for Liberation of Palestine, Al Fatah, and the Palestinian Liberation OrganizationHijacked aircraft in 1970In 1972, attacked passengers at Lydda Airport in Tel AvivAttacked the Israeli Olympic team in Munich in 1972Acts were intended to bring attention to the plight of the Palestinians but much of the world opinion was outraged by the acts themselves

Six Day War

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AftermathEgyptian and Israeli forces engaged in sporadic fighting across the borderWar of AttritionJordanian Crisis (August –Sept 1970)Seeing the PLO as a threat, King Hussein of Jordan attacked PLO refugee campsPrior to the attacks PLO supported groups challenged Jordanian Law, took westerners hostage, and hijacked 4 planesHis attack led to the formation of Black SeptemberThis group assumed responsibility for the attacks on the Israeli Olympic teamSyrians threatened a tank invasion

Six Day War

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The AftermathJordanian CrisisNasser played a large role in negotiating an end to the crisisThe strain of the negotiation caused Nasser to collapse and die on Sept. 28th 1970.

Six Day War

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Arab League supported the establishment of an organization that would represent Palestinians and strive toward the liberation of PalestineNasser backed this idea to have a new group in the League that would be under his controlThis would prevent Palestinians from taking action against Israel that would drag Egypt into a confrontation

Al-Fatah and the PLO

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Arab leaders chose Ahmad al-Shuqayri as leader of the PLO (1964)King Hussein banned the PLO and Fatah from all activities including recruitment in his countryAl Shuqayri had stated the East and West Bank Jordan and Israel all were part of PalestineJordan had a population made up of 60% PalestinianAl Shuqayri seemed much too tame for Syria who wanted militant action against Israel. Syria’s support turned to a smaller Palestinian organization…Al-FatahSyria also wanted to oust King Hussein

Al-Fatah and the PLO

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Syria’s sponsorship of Fatah was an effort to reestablish itself as the main player in the Arab revolutionary struggleSyria was controlled by the Baath PartyBaath party mixed Arab nationalism and Arab Socialism. It was opposed to “Western Imperialism” and called for unity in the Arab world under one stateBy 1965, 39 random bombings had taken placeIsrael was concerned about its securityIt wasn’t clear where the attacks were coming fromJordan was concerned about an Israeli retaliationBoth Hussein and Nasser feared the outbreak of hostilitiesSyria was trying to paint both Egypt and Jordan as soft on Israel

Al-Fatah and the PLO

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In Dec. of 1967 members of the PLO’s executive committee demanded that Al Shuqayri resignHe refused and asked for support from NasserNasser refused to back him and he resigned1968 PLO Charter stated that armed struggle would be the only way to liberate PalestineFatah and the PLO would merge in 1969 and Yassir Arafat was named the leaderArafat was involved in the battle of Karameh which helped propel him into the leadership positionKarameh was a Palestinian refugee camp and Fatah Headquarters that was attacked by Israel in 1968 after an attack on an Israeli Bus.Israel won the battle but suffered many casualties. Arafat wanted to shape the PLO into a unified political and military organization

Al-Fatah and the PLO

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In August of 1970, Hussein, Nasser, and Golda Meir agreed to bring the war of attrition to a temporary haltPLO was shocked and felt betrayed by Egypt and JordanFelt the best way to end the cease-fire would be to overthrow King HusseinKing Hussein attacked the PLO in Sept. of 1970PLO was forced to flee Jordan and established itself in LebanonNasser dies during negotiations and Anwar Sadat replaces him

Al-Fatah and the PLO

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Sadat wanted to regain the Sinai Peninsula and re-establish control over the Suez CanalAlso had far reaching economic goals. War of Attrition had left Egypt bankruptWanted to move Egypt closer to the U.S. Proposed that Israel withdraw from the canal zone as a first step for Israel to fulfill Resolution 242Promised to restore diplomatic relations with the U.S. and sign a peace agreement with IsraelIsrael rejected the proposal

Anwar Sadat

Slide53

Sadat asked the Soviets to remove all of its advisors and technicians in July of 1971This was done to satisfy the U.S.Sadat and President Assad of Syria then began to plan for war against IsraelFelt this was the only way to get Israel to the negotiating table.Sadat wanted to take back the canal and the SinaiAssad wanted to regain the Golan HeightsIsrael didn’t recognize the warning signs until it was too late

Anwar Sadat

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On Oct. 6, 1973, Egypt and Syria launched Operation Badr against IsraelThis was the day of a Jewish religious celebration, Yom KippurIsrael faced heavy losses since Egypt and Syria were well equipped with Soviet weaponsIsrael appealed to the U.S. for help and weaponsU.S. airlifted weapons after the Soviets resupplied EgyptIsrael counterattacked against Syria and was closing in on the Syrian capital of DamascusIsrael was also having success against Egypt in the Sinai

1973 War

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In response to the U.S. helping Israel, OPEC stopped shipping oil to the U.S. and any country that supported IsraelThey dropped their Oil shipments by 25% causing a world shortageDuring the 3rd week of October, the superpowers got involvedU.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and Soviet Leader Leonid Brezhnev met in Moscow to draft a plan to end the war

1973 War

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All sides initially rejected calls for a cease fire but later changed their minds when the U.S. and Soviets threatened to interveneCeasefire was agreed on Oct. 22nd , 1973Consequences of the 1973Arab armies were not defeated, first time since 1948Arab states emerged more united than everMiddle East countries will now use oil as a bargaining tool. European Economic Community affirmed that the rights of Palestinians must be considered in any settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict

1973 War

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ConsequencesSadat emerged as an international statesman and Egypt increased political status in the regionIsrael technically won the war but public confidence in the government was shakenMoshe Dayan (Defense Minister) and Golda Meir (Prime Minister) were forced to resign in April of 1974Yitzhak Rabin took over leadership of the Israeli government

1973 War

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International attempts to resolve tensions in the region generally failedSecretary of State Henry Kissinger became a key figureHe knew that Sadat was willing to work with IsraelKissinger was concerned about OPEC and decided to take multiple visits to the Middle EastKissinger also suggested to the Palestinians that any partial withdrawal done by Israel might lead to a more comprehensive withdrawal in the future (shuttle diplomacy)

Role of the United States, the PLO and the United Nations

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Kissinger would help convince Israel to withdraw from the Suez and Sinai PeninsulaIn 1974 at the Arab League meeting the PLO was declared the sole and legitimate representative of the Palestinian peopleYassir Arafat began to have hope that a separate Palestinian state would happenIt would be made up of the West Bank and Gaza StripArafat was asked to address the UN General Assembly This was a change in direction for the UN which had supported partition

Role of the United States, the PLO and the United Nations

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On Nov. 22, 1974 the UN passes Resolution 3236Reaffirmed the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people in Palestine to the right of self determination and the right to national independenceInvited the PLO to participate in the UN as an observerPLO had been legitimized by the United Nations

Role of the United States, the PLO and the United Nations

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Rabin’s government was the first Likud Government since 1948It’s Prime Minister was Menachem BeginBegin was considered to be a hardliner among the Arab statesIdeological background of the party indicated that giving up any land to the Palestinians would be a betrayal of Israel’s sovereigntyJimmy Carter became president in the U.S. in 1976He traveled to Syria to test the waters of a peace agreementHe found out that Syria didn’t support the idea of an independent Palestine only a Syrian controlled PLO

Camp David and the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Agreement

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Carter’s hope for peace seemed to be shattered when Begin compared Arafat to HitlerIn 1977, Sadat announced that he was willing to go to Israel and address the KnessetSadat was denounced by some Arab states and the PLO as a traitorHe traveled to Jerusalem in November of 1977 and addressed the KnessetNo breakthrough took place but a groundbreaking meeting took place.

Camp David and the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Agreement

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In September of 1978, President Carter invited Begin and Sadat to Camp David for talksIt was a bad tempered affair between Begin and SadatSadat threatened to return to Egypt after days of discussionCamp David Accords were signed on Sept. 17, 1978Called for Jordan, Egypt, Israel, and the Palestinian people to resolve issues in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip over a period of 5 years

Camp David and the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Agreement

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Camp David Accords ContinuedIsrael would withdraw from the Sinai in exchange for free passage through the Gulf of Suez and the CanalThe territorial issues would not be settled. Sadat was considered a traitor and was assassinated by his own army in October of 1981Arab League and the PLO suspended diplomatic relations with EgyptAccords brought peace between Egypt and Israel for over 30 years but key issues were unresolvedGaza Strip, West Bank, Golan Heights, and East Jerusalem remained under Israeli control

Camp David and the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Agreement

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Following the defeat of the PLO in Lebanon, it was forced to move its headquarters to TunisOn Dec. 8, 1987, an Israeli Army vehicle crashed into a truck in GazaKilled 4 Palestinian workers and wounded 7Funerals turned into a protest against IsraelIsraeli army fired upon the protesters, killing oneThis began the first Intifada (shaking off) of Israeli presenceDespite military superiority, the Israeli’s were unable to control the Intifada

Palestinians and Israelis 1979-2009

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Radical Islamic groups, Hamas and Islamic Jihad were formedTheir aims included the establishment of an Islamic State in Palestine through JihadNorway 1993: A meeting between Israel and the PLO resulted in the Declaration of Principles (Oslo Accord)This was the first step in allowing for Israel to withdraw from the West Bank and the Gaza StripIsraeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, Yassir Arafat, and Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres won the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts in 1994Sept. 1995 peace accords were signed at the White House creating three zones in the West Bank and proposed how they would be controlledAlso agreed that elections would be held to create the Palestinian Authority

Palestinians and Israelis 1979-2009

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Radicals were furious on both sidesRabin was assassinated on Nov. 4, 1995Shimon Peres became the new Prime Minister and began implementing the peace accordJan. 1996 Palestinian elections were held and Arafat was the clear winner, seemed as if a Palestinian state was in the process of being createdIsrael assassinated Yahya Ayyaash a Hamas bomb expertSuicide bombings increased and Peres launched Operation Grapes of Wrath in April of 1996. Attacked Hezbollah camps and Lebanese Roads

Palestinians and Israelis 1979-2009

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Peres was defeated by Benjamin Netanyahu in the next election, he condemned the Oslo agreementsAllowed Israeli settlers to occupy land in the West Bank1997 Hebron Agreement: Israel would withdraw from the West Bank and Palestinians would reduce terrorist attacksIn 2000, Likud party leader Ariel Sharon insisted on visiting the Temple Mount, one of Islam’s holiest sites

Palestinians and Israelis 1979-2009

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Protesters tried to block his access and the Israeli army fired upon them, killing 4The second Intifada broke out with extreme violenceArafat’s decision to support the Intifada led to the rejection of the Oslo processAriel Sharon became prime minister in Feb. of 2001 and adopted a hardline approach Arafat was unable to control the extremist elementsWas unable to move Israel out of the Gaza and the West BankArafat died in Nov. of 2004 and was succeeded by Mahmoud Abbas

Palestinians and Israelis 1979-2009

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Abbas was unable to provide sound leadershipIn the elections of 2006, Hamas gained control of the Palestinian AuthorityThis strengthened Israel’s determination not to surrender landFatah would not accept the result of the electionIn 2007, the Hamas government collapsedHamas continued to fire rockets at IsraelSmuggled weapons from EgyptIsrael invaded Gaza in 2009 killing 1,000 Palestinians.

Palestinians and Israelis 1979-2009

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Looking at document 4.2, explain the reasoning behind the partition plan of 1947. Make sure you look at all 15 pointsDiscuss how the Israeli Information Service justifies the formation of Israel. What are some of their appeals?


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