Importance of Grains and Bread for Health and Disease Preve

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Importance of Grains and Bread for Health and Disease Preve




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Importance of Grains and Bread for Health and Disease Prevention

Sylvia A. Escott-Stump, MA, RD, LDNPresident, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (2011-2012)escottstumps@ecu.edu

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Objective

To highlight the many health benefits of grains and bread.

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Wheat Cultivation and History

Göbeklitepe 250 A.D.

Antalya, Turkey 2014 A.D.

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Note the new Bread and Bread Varieties Statement, Flour Statement and Turkish Food Codex Additives Regulation.

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7 Key Foods in the Mediterranean

History: 7 foods

wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives, and date honey

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Carbohydrates are ESSENTIAL for life

Carbs are NOT bad for us!

SOURCE OF CARBOHYDRATE

Bread

provides the largest source of carbohydrates in a day.The Brain and Red Blood Cells require glucose!!

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Key Goals for Health

Reduce

overall calories, added sugars and sodiumConsume a more plant-based diet: More whole grains!!

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Note the Grain-Bread Section

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Nutrient-Density

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Bioactive Compounds

Polyphenols

The whole-grain package

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Fiber: A Health Defender

Insoluble fiber in whole wheat and branSoluble fiber in oats

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Reductions in Health Risks

Whole

 grains + cereal fibers with ≥25% bran

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Brain Health:Gut Bacteria--Microbiota

Short-chain fatty acids

Intestinal

gluconeogenesis (IGN):beneficial effects on glucose and energy homeostasis.

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Cancer Prevention

Oats: β-glucans tocols (vitamin E) Anti-tumor properties

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β-glucan (oats, barley)Psyllium Inulin-type fructans Arabinoxylan and resistant starch

Greatest benefits

Cardiovascular Health

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Diabetes (Type 2)

20-30% lower risk of T2D with high intakes of cereal fiber or mixtures of whole grains and bran.

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Fatty Liver Disease

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Metabolic Syndrome

Obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, hypertension, or increased pro-inflammatory stateBEST: Flaxseed, oats, barley, whole grains and soy

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Obesity

THE PROBLEM

“The obesity epidemic is the single greatest threat to public health in this century.” 2010 Dietary Guidelines Committee Report

ONE SOLUTION: WHOLE GRAINS

Increased satiety/fullnessEat lessAvoid blood sugarsurges and cravings

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Systemic Inflammation

Whole grains increase microbial diversityThey also reduce plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), which improves systemic inflammationWhole Grain Barley + Brown Rice

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Aleurone in branMagnesium, zinc, and ferulic acid

Need 40+ grams/day of whole grains

What are the

Biofactors

??

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BIOACTIVE

INGREDIENTSUMMARY

Dietary fiber

Resistant starch,

Oligo-saccharides

Bioactive

components

Colonic

fermentation

Anti-inflammatory,

antioxidant status

Insulin

sensitivity

Blood lipids

cholesterol, etc.

Homocysteine

Type 2

diabetes

Cardiovascular

disease

Satiety

(fullness)

Weight,

BMI

Glycemic

index

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Breakfast also!

Family Meals

Matter

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Big Challenges!

Many factors affect grain choicesCooking ease and qualityLack of cooking skillAppearanceTasteMouth-feelCostCompeting foods

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Challenge #1: Celiac Disease

LIFELONG OMISSION

wheat, barley, rye, kamut, triticaleAdded protein (gluten) in our flours = a concern

ALLOWED GRAINS

AmaranthBuckwheatCornMilletOatsQuinoaRiceSorghum Teff Wild Rice

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Challenge #2: Demand for Convenience

People want fast and easy!!Product innovations Simple culinary instructions

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Challenge #3: Food Labeling

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Challenge #4: Different Cultures

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Challenge #5: Habits

Academy of Nutrition and DieteticsSurveys

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http://www.eatright.org/Public/content.aspx?id=6442475878

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Begin with Consumer Education

What are “whole” grains?

When grains grow in the field, they have three edible parts. If all three are still there in a food or ingredient, it’s a whole grain. 

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Simple Messages—Small Changes

In supermarkets, educate with:

Food labels, Packaging, Shelf tagsSimple languageSmall steps3 recommendationsat a timeEncourage basic “enjoyment of food”

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Go for the Whole Grains – Make 50% WHOLE!!

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Let’s work together for change!!

BREAD IS BEAUTIFUL!!


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