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Slide1

REPUBLICAN ASCENDANCY: THE JEFFERSON and MADISON

Chapter 7Slide2

The “Revolution of 1800”

Burr and Jefferson tie in the election of 1800

Alexander Hamilton supports Jefferson

Jefferson, Republican, takes office with Burr as VP

Peaceful transfer of power from one party to another

Inaugural address:

We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.

Slide3

Jefferson Dismantles Federalist Policies

Abolished all internal taxes (whiskey tax)

Reduced government spending

Cut federal debt almost in half

Reduced the size of the army and navy

50%

Retired most of the navy

s warships

(Critics claimed he left the nation defenseless)

He tried removed the

midnight appointees

-judges appointed by Adams Slide4

Question

Just how

DEMOCRATIC

was Jefferson?Slide5

Trouble with the Barbary StatesSlide6

Conflict With the Barbary States

North African states (Pasha of Tripoli) demanded tribute from ships sailing in Mediterranean

Jefferson dispatched U.S. fleet to

negotiate through the mouth of a cannon

U.S. ends up paying $60,000 for the release of U.S. sailors Slide7

North America in 1800Slide8

Attack on the Judges:

Marbury v. Madison

Jefferson tried to deny Federalist Marbury his judgeship.

Marbury took his case to the Supreme Court which ruled the court had no authority to order James Madison to deliver the commission. They ruled the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional.

***Under Chief Justice

John Marshall

in

Marbury v. Madison

(1803) the ruling established the Supreme Court

s right of

judicial review of federal legislation and executive action. Slide9

****

Marbury

v. Madison

Judicial Review

Established one of the most important principles of American constitutional law: The right of judicial review.

. The Supreme Court held that the Court itself

has the final say on the meaning of the Constitution (interpretation and application) as well as the power to nullify an act of Congress. Slide10

Attack on the Judges: Impeachments

1803--Federalist John Pickering impeached, removed for alcoholism and insanity

Republicans began to fearing the destruction of an independent judiciary.

Jefferson made the situation worse by seeking to impeach Federalist Supreme Court Justice

Samuel Chase

The Republican Senate refused to convict Chase. No attempt has been made since to restructure the court through impeachment. Slide11

The Louisiana Purchase Slide12

Westward:

T

he Course of Empire

Intense migration to West after 1790

New States included

Kentucky--1792

Tennessee--1796

Ohio—1803

***Water transportation is essential to westward expansion and New Orleans connected these markets to the world Slide13

The Louisiana Purchase

1801--France bought Louisiana from Spain

1803

--Jefferson sent diplomats to France to buy

New Orleans

Napoleon offered to sell all of Louisiana for $15 million (4 cents an acre)

The Constitution is vague on Congressional authority to purchase LA

****Jefferson abandons his position of a

strict

interpretation of the Constitution to purchase LA territory Slide14
Slide15

A Proclamation to the People of New Orleans, 1803 (In three languages) Slide16

The Louisiana Purchase (2)

Louisiana inhabitants were French & Spanish

Jefferson denies them self-rule=

Taxation without representation

Louisiana was governed from Washington

This was another Jeffersonian departure from Republicanism

The boundaries of the territory are not clear. Slide17

http://www.history.com/topics/meriwether-lewis/videos#louisiana-purchase-doubles-size-of-americaSlide18

LA Purchase: Is It Constitutional?

http://www.history.com/shows/the-presidents/videos/jefferson-expands-executive-power#jefferson-expands-executive-powerSlide19

The Lewis and Clark Expedition

Lewis and Clark Expedition was

commissioned prior to purchase of Louisiana

Expedition left St. Louis May 1804 and returned in 1806.

They were gone for 21/2 years and covered 8,000 miles.

Sacagawea

, Shoshone Indian guide

Both men agreed the area beyond the Missouri—though rich in resources--

was not fit for settlement. Slide20

The Louisiana Purchase and the Route of Lewis and ClarkSlide21

http://www.history.com/videos/lewis--clark-expedition-charts-new-territorySlide22
Slide23
Slide24

Murder and Conspiracy: The Curious Career of Aaron Burr

Vice-President

Aaron Burr

breaks with Jefferson

1804--Burr seeks Federalist support in 1804 New York governor

s race

Alexander Hamilton

blocks Burr

s efforts

Burr kills Hamilton in a duelSlide25

The Burr Conspiracy

Burr fled to the west after Hamilton duel

Some believed Burr planned to invade Spanish territory and convince western states to secede from the union.

Burr was arrested and tried for treason

John Marshall

acquitted on Constitutional grounds of insufficient evidence

He fled to England but returned years later to live as an outcast in the U.S.

The wickedest man alive.

Slide26

Video on Burr Duel

Founding Brothers Slide27

Embarrassments Overseas

1803--England and France resumed war (Napoleonic Wars)

American ships were subject to seizure:

Between 1803 and 1807, the British seized 500 American ships and France seized 300.

Impressments

=seizing U.S. sailors for service in English navy (

Chesapeake-Leopard

Incident)

Jefferson refused to declare war. Instead, he cut off trade with France and England instead.

Embargo Act of 1807

-Jefferson

s alternative to warSlide28

Embargo Act (1807) Divided the Nation

Embargo Act

prohibited American ships from leaving the U.S. for any foreign port.

Embargo crippled the American economy.

American exports dropped from $108 million in 1807 to $22 million.

Imports dropped from $138 million to $57 million.

Merchants declared bankruptcy, jobs were lost, banks closed

Jefferson stopped enforcing the embargo Slide29

GORDON WOOD “EMPIRE OF LIBERTY”

VIDEO NOTES Slide30

GORDON WOOD LECTURE: “EMPIRE OF LIBERTY” (1790-1820)

The population doubled every 20 years

Americans moved westward rapidly leading to disputes over land and relocation and conflict with Native Americans

Westward movement led to the creation of new states and a shift in political power from the east to the western region

Religious revivals sweep the nation (Second Great Awakening) and new religious groups are organized—Methodists, Baptists, Mormons, etc.Slide31

Gordon Wood VideoThe national economy grows rapidly and Americans seize opportunities for economic and social gains –very ambitious!

Crime rate spiked

Three wrong assumptions of the founding generation:

1. They could control westward expansion

2. They could deal with the Indians in a humane manner 3. Slavery would die a natural deathSlide32

JAMES MADISONTHE MADISON ADMINISTRATION Slide33

James Madison Elected President Slide34

# 4, James MadisonPart of the “Virginia Dynasty” and founding generation

Father of the Constitution

Author of the Federalist Papers

Supporter of the Bill of Rights

Dem-Republican along with Jefferson

Slide35

Historical Context: Madison Administration

Westward expansion, land disputes

Growing population

Religious revivalism “Second Great Awakening”

Great Britain and France were at war (Napoleonic Wars) US ships were caught between the warring nations

Embargo Act had damaged the US economy

Indian unrest in the Northeast and the South Importation of slaves ended in 1808 Slide36

A New Administration Goes to War:

Mr. Madison’s War

1808--James Madison was elected President and Britain and France were at war

1809--Embargo was repealed in favor of

Non-Intercourse Act-

reopens trade with all nations EXCEPT Britain and France

Macon

s Bill No. 2

-U.S. resumed trade with France and Britain as long as both allowed unrestricted trade Slide37

Causes of the War of 1812: US vs. Great Britain

1. Americans resented

British

occupation of forts in the Northwest where they supplied

Indians in attacks

against American settlers

2. British seizure of American ships and impressment of American citizens

3. As the nation moved westward, the region gained political power in Congress. “War Hawks” from the western states supported war with Britain=Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun

4. Some Americans hoped to gain territory in Canada and Florida Slide38

War of 1812Slide39

http://www.history.com/topics/war-of-1812/videos#americans-and-british-face-off-in-war-of-1812Slide40

Fumbling Toward Conflict

Americans believed the British were supporting

Tecumseh

s

Western campaign

Congressional

War Hawks

demanded war against England to preserve American honor

June 1, 1812,

Madison

sent to Congress a declaration of warSlide41

Americans Were Not Prepared for War

Small national budget=1/15

th

the size of England

sHad only 7,500 men on military rolls

American navy had 16 warships and 7 frigatesBritish navy had 166 frigates and 124 large warships Americans planned to attack Canada Slide42
Slide43

Strange War of 1812:

The War’s Conclusion

1814--three-pronged English attack

campaign from Canada to Hudson River Valley stopped at Lake Champlain

campaign in the Chesapeake resulted in burning of Washington, siege of Baltimore

campaign for

New Orleans

thwarted by

Andrew Jackson

, January, 1815 (13 casualties to 2000 British)

Treaty of Ghent signed December, 1814Slide44

http://www.history.com/topics/war-of-1812/videos#accounts-receivable-book-seized-during-the-war-of-1812Slide45

http://www.history.com/videos/andrew-jackson-hero-of-new-orleansSlide46

“The Star Spangled Banner”

Frances Scott Key (30’ x42’)Slide47

http://www.history.com/search?search-field=America+Flag%3ADeconstructed+&x=14&y=13Slide48

Hartford Convention: The Demise of the Federalists

Federalists convened December, 1814

Proposed Constitutional changes to lessen power of South and West and the President

Federalists talked of

secession

Treaty of Ghent

and the victory of New Orleans made Convention appear disloyal

Federalist party never recoveredSlide49

Treaty of Ghent Ends the War

Most problems left unaddressed

Senate unanimously ratified the

Treaty of Ghent

Americans claimed success in a

"second war of independence"Slide50

Republican Legacy

Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both died July 4, 1826

James Madison died in 1836

He despaired that Declaration

s principles not yet extended to African AmericansSlide51

By: giovanna-bartolotta
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Type: Public

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REPUBLICAN ASCENDANCY: THE JEFFERSON and MADISON - Description


Chapter 7 The Revolution of 1800 Burr and Jefferson tie in the election of 1800 Alexander Hamilton supports Jefferson Jefferson Republican takes office with Burr as VP Peaceful transfer of power from one party to another ID: 167321 Download Presentation

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