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1 The Gunpowder Empires Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals
1 The Gunpowder Empires Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals

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and Early Modern Europe 14501750 2 Rule of the Ottomans 3 The Ottoman Empire 12891923 Osman leads bands of seminomadic Turks to become ghazi Muslim religious warriors Captures Anatolia with light cavalry and volunteer infantry ID: 686930 Download Presentation


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The Gunpowder Empires

Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals and Early Modern Europe1450-1750Slide2


Rule of the OttomansSlide3


The Ottoman Empire (1289-1923)‏

Osman leads bands of semi-nomadic Turks to become ghazi: Muslim religious warriorsCaptures Anatolia with light cavalry and volunteer infantryLater, heavy cavalryIn Balkans, forced Christian families to surrender young boys to military service:

devshirmeOften grew up to be exceptionally loyal JanissariesSlide4



The Silk Rope or the Golden Cage

Beginning with the Sultan Bayazit I, policy of fratricideKilled 19 of his male siblings and drowned 7 pregnant harem girlsCarried out by deaf, mute eunuch assassins used silk rope for strangulationBecame matter of written law for future sultans

Distance from throne at death of father, could decide next sultan. First order was to kill his brothersSultan Ahmet I broke fratricide tradition by imprisoning mentally challenged brother in the Kafe or Golden Cage.Slide6


Kafe or Golden Cage (interior)‏

Extravagant prison cell

Windows only on second floorSlot for delivering food.Slide7


Sultan's Family TreeSlide8


Mehmed II (“the Conqueror,” r. 1451-1481)

‏Capture of Constantinople, 1453Renamed IstanbulTransformation from warrior sultan to emperor of “two lands” (Europe, Asia) and “two seas” (Black Sea, Mediterranean)‏Planned to capture Pope, unsuccessfulSlide9


Suleyman the Magnificent (r. 1520-1566)

‏Expanded into Asia, EuropeBesieged Vienna, 1529Develops naval powerSlide10



I. The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders

Mid-1200s, Mongols defeat SeljuksOttomans emerge dominant

Into Balkans, 14th, 15th centuries1453, take Constantinople Expansion

Middle East, north Africa, EuropeDominate Mediterranean

A. A State Geared to Warfare--Military dominantTurkic horsemen become warrior nobilityJanissary infantry

Conscripted youth from conquered peoples

The Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal EmpiresSlide12


 B. The Sultans and their Court

Use factions against each other  Vizier Oversees large bureaucracy Succession

No clear rules

C. Constantinople Restored and the Flowering of Ottoman Culture Suleymaniye mosque, 16th century

Commercial center Government control of trade, crafts

Artisan guilds Turkish prevails

Expansion of the Ottoman EmpireSlide13


D. The Problem of Ottoman Decline

Strong until late 1600 Decline Extended Infrastructure insufficient Dependent on conquest

End of conquest brings deficiencies Regional leaders divert revenue

Sultans less dynamicSlide14


E. Military Reverses and the Ottoman Retreat

Janissaries Conservative Stop military, technological reform Lepanto, 1571

Defeated by Spain, Venice Turks lose control of eastern Mediterranean Portuguese outflank Middle East trade

Sail around Africa into Indian Ocean Victories over Muslim navies

Inflation Caused by New World bullion Comes at same time as loss of revenue from control of tradeSlide15







Armenian Genocide, 1915Slide19


The Safavid Empire

Ismail young military leader, r. 1501-1524Orphaned, parents killed by enemiesBecomes Shah, proclaims official religion of realm Twelver ShiismTwelve infallible imams after Muhammad

12th imam in hiding, ready to take powerWore distinctive red hat, called quzilbash (“red heads”)‏

Empire called Safavid, after Safi al-Din (1252-1334), Sufi thinkerSlide20



Shiite Pilgrims at KarbalaSlide22


Battle of Chaldiran (1514)‏

Ottoman Selim the Grim attacks SafavidsHeavy use of Ottoman gunpowder technology give them the upper handIsmail escapes, two centuries of ongoing conflictShah Abbas the Great (r. 1588-1629) revitalizes weakened Safavid empire

Reforms administration, militaryExpands tradeMilitary expansionSlide23


The Safavid Empire

II. The Shi’a Challenge of the Safavids

Safavid family

Sufi preachers, mystics

Sail al-Din

Leads revival

1501, Ismâ'il takes Tabriz

Named shah

Chaldiran, 1514

Safavids defeated by Ottomans Slide24


A. Politics and War under the Safavid Shahs

Tahmasp I Becomes shah Abbas I (1587-­1629) Height of Ottoman Empire

Persians as bureaucratsB. State and ReligionAdopt Persian after Chaldiran

Also Persian court traditionsShi'ism modified

Spreads to entire empireC. Elite Affluence and Artistic SplendorAbbas I supports international trade, Islamic culture

Building projects Mosques in IsfahanSlide25


 D. Society and Gender Roles: Ottoman and Safavid Comparisons

Commonalities Warrior aristocracies Move to rural estates after conquest

Threat to central power Imperial workshops

Artisans patronized International trade encouraged

Women lose freedom Subordinate to fathers, husbandsSlide26


E. The Rapid Demise of the Safavid Empire

Abbas I

Removes heirs

Weak grandson inherits

Decline begins

Internecine conflict

Religious power of mullas weakens dynastic control

Outside threats from Afghani Kurds

1772, Isfahan taken by Afghanis

Nadir Khan Afshar supports exiled shah and unites

Declares self Shah, 1736Slide27


The Mughal Empire

Zahir al-Din Muhammad (Babur the Tiger), Chagatai Turk, invades northern India for plunder, 1523Gunpowder technology gives Babur advantageFounds Mughal (Persian for Mongol) dynasty Expands through most of Indian subcontinentSlide28


Akbar (r. 1556-1605)‏

Grandson of BaburWins fear and respect after throwing Adham Khan, leader of the army, out the window twiceSecond time just to make sure he was deadCreated centralized government

Destroyed Hindu kingdom of VijayanagarReligiously tolerant, promoted “Divine Faith”Syncretic form of Islam and HinduismSlide29



Aurangzeb (r. 1659-1707)‏

Expands Mughal empire into southern IndiaHostile to HinduismDemolished Hindu temples, replaced with mosquesTax on Hindus to encourage conversionSlide31


III. The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India

Babur Driven from Afghanistan Invades India, 1526 Turkic Panipat, 1526 Defeats Muslim Lodi dynasty

Khanua, 1527 Defeats Hindu confederation1530, death

Succeeded by Humayn Flees to Persia Mughal rule restored by Humayn by 1556

The Growth of the Mughal Empire from Akbar to AurangzebSlide32


A. Akbar and the Basis for a Lasting Empire

Humayn's 13-year-old son

Reconciliation with Hindus

New religion, Din-i-Ilahi

Blend of Islam and Hinduism


B. Social Reform and Social Change


Position improved

Widows encouraged to remarry

Child marriages discouraged




Seclusion undermined by women's market daysSlide33


C. Mughal Splendor and Early European Contacts

Death of Akbar Reforms don't survive Empire strong Cotton textiles to Europe

Especially among laboring and middle classes D. Artistic Achievement in the Mughal Era Jahangir and Shah Jahan, 17th century

Continue toleration Less energetic

Support arts Taj MahalSlide34


E. Court Politics and the Position of Elite and

Ordinary Women Nur Jahan Wife of Jahangir Head of powerful faction Mumtaz Mahal Wife of Shah Jahan Also powerful

Ordinary women Position declines

Sati spreads among upper classes Other of Akbar's reforms die outSlide35


F. The Beginnings of Imperial Decline

Aurangzeb Succeeds Shah Jahan ProgramsRule all IndiaCleanse Islam of Hindu taint

1707, controls most of IndiaExpensive, distracting Other developments disregarded

RevoltAutonomy of local leaders Hindus exluded from high office

Non-Muslims taxed Marattas and Sikhs challenge ruleSlide36


Common Elements of Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal Empires

Empires based on military conquest (“gunpowder empires”)‏Prestige of dynasty dependent on piety and military prowess of the rulerClose relations with Sufism, ghazi traditionSteppe Turkish traditions

Issuance of unilateral decrees Intra-family conflicts over power

1595 Sultan massacres 19 brothers (some infants), 15 expectant women (strangulation with silk)‏Slide37


Women and Politics

Women officially banned from political activityBut tradition of revering mothers, 1st wives from Chinggis KhanSüleyman the Magnificent defers to concubine Hürrem SultanaOriginally Roxelana, Ukrainian woman

Convinces husband to murder eldest son in favor of her own childSlide38


Agriculture and Trade

Columbian Exchange crops effect less dramatic change in Muslim empiresCoffee, tobacco importantInitial opposition from conservative circles, fearing lax morality of coffee housesPopulation growth also reflects territorial additions and losses

Trade with English East India Company, French East India Company, and Dutch East India Company(VOC)‏Slide39


Population GrowthSlide40


Religious Diversity

Ottoman Empire: Christians, JewsSafavid Empire: Zoroastrians, Jews, ChristiansMughal Empire: Hindus, Jains, Zoroastrians, Christians, SikhsMughal Akbar most tolerant

Received Jesuits politely, but resented Christian exclusivityEnthusiastic about syncretic Sikhism, self-serving “Divine Faith”Slide41


Status of Religious Minorities

Non-Muslim protected people: dhimmiPayment of special tax: jizyaFreedom of worship, property, legal affairsOttoman communities: millet system of self-administration

Mughal rule: Muslims supreme, but work in tandem with HindusUnder Akbar, jizya abolished

Reaction under AurangzebSlide42


Capital Cities

Istanbul cultural capital of Ottoman empire, massive monumental architectureRededication of Hagia Sofia church as Aya Sofiya mosqueIshafan major Persian cityAkbar builds magnificent Fatehpur Sikri

Chooses site without sufficient water supply, abandonedTaj Mahal example of Mughal architectureSlide43


Deterioration of Imperial Leadership

Ottoman princes become lazy through luxurySelim the Sot (r. 1566-1574)‏Ibrahim the Crazy (r.1640-1648)‏

Attempts to isolate them compounds the problemReligious tensions between conservatives and liberals intensifyRole of women

Wahhabi movement in Arabia denounces Ottomans as unfit to ruleForce destruction of observatory, printing press

Safavid Shiites persecute Sunnis, non-Muslims and even SufisSlide44


Economic and Military Decline

Foreign trade controlled by EuropeansMilitary, administrative network expensive to maintainJanissaries mutiny when paid with debased coinage, 1589, other revolts followUnproductive wars

European military technology advances faster than Ottomans can purchase itSlide45


Cultural Conservatism

Europeans actively studying Islamic cultures for purposes of trade, missionary activitiesIslamic empires less interested in outside worldSwiftly fell behind in technological developmente.g. Jews from Spain establish 1st printing press in Anatolia in late 15

th centuryBut printing of books in Turkish and Arabic forbidden until 1729Handwritten books preferred, but weak levels of disseminationSlide46



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