PROTECT YOUR HEALTH The facts about heart disease and

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PROTECT YOUR HEALTH The facts about heart disease and - Description

stroke. High Blood Pressure. Millions of Canadians at risk of . cardiovascular disease. Over 4.7 million people still smoke. Over 60% of Canadians are above a healthy weight. 19% have high blood pressure. ID: 740330 Download Presentation

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PROTECT YOUR HEALTH The facts about heart disease and

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Presentations text content in PROTECT YOUR HEALTH The facts about heart disease and



The facts about heart disease and


High Blood Pressure


Millions of Canadians at risk of

cardiovascular disease

Over 4.7 million people still smoke

Over 60% of Canadians are above a healthy weight19% have high blood pressure

“Ninety percent of Canadians have at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease – which makes it more important than ever for the Heart and Stroke Foundation to support research into the root causes of  the  heart disease risk factors AND discovery of successful strategies to prevent the development of these risk factors.” Heart and Stroke Foundation Researcher Dr. Sonia Anand MD PhD FRCPc Professor of Medicine, McMaster University


Topics for today

How the heart works

Warning signs of heart attack

How the brain worksWarning signs of strokeRisk factors, high blood pressureWhat the Heart and Stroke Foundation is doing


How the Heart Works


The heart

Is a muscle the size of a clenched fist

Is located behind the breastbone

Pumps about 100,000 times a dayPumps about 7,600 litres of blood per day


Anatomy of the heart





Heart attacks

Blood flow through coronary arteries is blocked

Vital blood supply to heart muscle is cut off

About 70,000 heart attacks each yearVictims can often recover if treated immediately


Warning signs of a heart attack

Chest discomfort

(uncomfortable chest pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain, burning or heaviness)

Discomfort in other areas of the upper body (neck, jaw, shoulders, arms, back)


Warning signs of a heart attack

Shortness of breath





Warning signs of a heart attack

If you are experiencing any of the warning signs of a heart attack ….

Call 9-1-1

or your local emergency number IMMEDIATELYStop all activity

Take your normal dose of nitroglycerin (if prescribed)If you are experiencing chest pain, take one dose of 160-325mg of ASA. Rest until the EMS arrive


Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Most important factor in reducing pre-hospital deaths from cardiac arrest

CPR courses teach lifesaving skills

The Heart and Stroke Foundation collaborated on Resuscitation Guidelines in the US and Canada

“It only takes a few minutes to save a life. CPR and defibrillation if administered early can triple or quadruple a person’s chance of survival.”Heart and Stroke Foundation researcher Ian G. Stiell, MD, MSc, FRCPC


and Chair, Department of Emergency Medicine,

University of Ottawa

Distinguished Professor and University Health Research Chair,

University of Ottawa


Automated external defibrillator (AED)

Automatically analyses heart rhythm

Delivers controlled shock if needed to restore normal heart rhythm

Now found in public places such as sports arenas and airportsFor course information, please call1-888-HSF-INFO


How the Brain Works


The brain


A stroke is…

An injury to a part of the brain caused by interruption of blood flow

Research has shown us that when blood

flow is reduced, the brain tries to protect itself by releasing certain chemicals. In the short term, these chemicals can be protective but if blood flow is not restored quickly, they can actually contribute to brain damage. These insights have opened up new possibilities for developing drugs to protect the brain—agents that we call neuroprotectives.” Heart and Stroke Foundation ResearcherYu Tian Wang, PhD Heart and Stroke Foundation of British Columbia and Yukon Chair in Stroke ResearchProfessor, Department of Medicine,

University of British Columbia


Ischemic strokes


Hemorrhagic strokes


Warning signs of a stroke


- Sudden loss of strength or sudden numbness in the face, arm or leg, even if temporary

Trouble speaking

– Sudden difficulty speaking or understanding or sudden confusion, even if temporary

Vision problems

– Sudden trouble with vision, even if temporary

Stroke can be treated. That’s why its so important to recognize and respond to the warning signs.


Warning signs of a stroke

If you experience any of these symptoms,



or your local emergency number IMMEDIATELY

React immediately


– Sudden severe and unusual headache


– Sudden loss of balance, especially with any of the above signs


Risk Factors for

Heart Disease

and Stroke


Risk factors you can’t control



Family historyEthnicityPrior stroke or TIA


What you can do to lower your risk

Know and control your blood


Know and control your blood cholesterolManage your diabetesMaintain a healthy weightEat a healthy diet

Limit alcohol consumptionBe physically activeBe smoke-freeReduce stress


Know and control your high blood pressure

High blood pressure has no visible symptoms

Should be checked at least every two years by

a healthcare professionalVisit


“Blood pressure measures how hard blood pushes against the blood vessel walls.”

Copyright 1996 Tim Peters and Company, Inc. All rights reserved.


hat is high blood pressure


Blood pressure has TWO numbers

Top number = pressure when heart contracts (systolic)

Bottom number = pressure when heart relaxes (diastolic)

Example: healthy BP = 120 80


Classifications of hypertension






<80-85 mm Hg

High blood pressure


90 mm Hg or higher

High normal


80-89 mm Hg or higher

Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP), 2012


High blood pressure can:

Increase risk of stroke

Increase risk of heart disease

Damage kidneys and eyesCause impotence

Disrupt circulation


Risk factors you can’t change


Family history

Ethnic backgroundSouth AsianAboriginal PeoplesPeople of African Descent


Risk factors you can change

Take your blood pressure medication as prescribed

Understand and monitor your blood pressure

Be smoke-freeMaintain a healthy weightMaintain a balanced diet

Get activeLimit alcohol intakeManage stress


How often should I check my blood pressure?




At least every two years by a healthcare provider




very year

or as recommended by your doctor




Check often – your doctor will tell you just how often


If using a home blood pressure monitor:

Ask doctor’s advice

Record results and show to doctor

Select monitor endorsed by Hypertension Canada

Ensure correct cuff sizeCheck monitor for accuracyLearn and use proper measurement technique


“White coat hypertension”

A few people have high blood pressure when they visit the doctor’s office but have normal blood pressure when they go about their usual daily activities.

Regular monitoring is required, as many people with WCH may develop high blood pressure over time.


Preparing to take your blood pressure:

Wait 2 hours after a big meal or heavy exercise

Wait 30 minutes after exercising, smoking or drinking caffeine

Don’t measure if you are in pain or upsetBe in calm warm environment

Empty your bladder or bowelSit quietly with your arm and back supported for 5 minutes prior


When taking your blood pressure:

Do not speak

Be seated

Keep back supported Keep legs uncrossedKeep feet flat on the floor

Ensure arm is supportedPlace cuff on bare arm, 3 cm above fold of elbow, at heart level


Know and control your blood cholesterol

Ask your doctor if you are at risk and should

be tested

Can be lowered by reducing your fat intake and being physically activeMay be controlled with medication


Manage your diabetes

Damages blood vessels, causes circulation problems

Reduce risk of diabetes by healthy diet, activity, weight control

Control diabetes to reduce your risk of heart disease and stroke


Maintain a healthy weight

Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight by enjoying regular physical activity and healthy eating

Small weight loss can significantly reduce risk


“With over 60% of Canadians being over-weight or obese, we are faced with a serious public health problem.” Heart and Stroke Foundation Researcher Bruce A. Reeder MD, MHSc, FRCPCDepartment of Community Health and EpidemiologyUniversity of Saskatchewan


Eat a balanced healthy diet

Enjoy a variety of foods from the four food groups

Choose lower fat dairy products, leaner meats and watch your portion size

Find delicious recipes and helpful cooking tips


Reduce dietary salt

Choose fresh foods

Prepare home cooked meals

Season foods with herbs, salt-free spices, lemon, vinegar, garlic and onionLimit intake of salty condiments

Avoid salty processed foodsLook for products with the Health Check™symbol


Limit alcohol consumption

Women—no more than 2 drinks/day to a maximum of 10 drinks/week

Men—no more than 3 drinks/day to a maximum of 15 drinks/week

These guidelines do not apply if you are driving a vehicle,

taking medications or other drugs that interact with alcohol, pregnant or are trying to get pregnant or breastfeeding, making important decisions, doing any kind of dangerous physical activity, living with alcohol dependence or mental or physical health problems, or responsible for the safety of others. If you are concerned about how drinking may affect your health, talk to your doctor


Be physically active

Adults aged 18-64 should accumulate at least

150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of

10 minutes or moreBe active most days of the weekConsult a healthcare professional before starting an activity program


Be smoke-free

Smoking cessation programs improve the

chances of quitting

Visit for tips on quitting successfully

“After you quit smoking, your risk of heart attack begins to decrease within just two days. Within a year it’s cut in half. And within 10 to 15 years, your risk of heart disease is almost the same as a non-smoker’s.”

Heart and Stroke Foundation researcher


W. McDonald,


Professor and Chair, Health

Studies and Gerontology


of Waterloo


Reduce stress

Recognize sources of stress

Consider relaxation exercises

Ask for help from family, friends, or a healthcare professional


What the

Heart and Stroke Foundation is doing


The Heart and Stroke Foundation at work in your community

World class research

Advocating for social change

CPR/AEDsPromoting healthy living


Interested in volunteering?


Call 1-888-HSF-INFOContact your local area office



and sign up today!


What can YOU do?

Learn about your risk factors and how to reduce their impact

Know the warning signs of heart disease and stroke and what to do

Learn CPRBecome a volunteerSign up for He@lthlineVisit


Thank you!

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