Presentations text content in Questioned Documents
Any document about which some issue has been raised or that is the subject of an investigation
Questioned Document Examination
The part of forensic science pertaining to documents.
Types of Documents
Sheet of paper, ransom note, forged check, contracts, graffiti, impressions, labels, emails,
Handwriting, signature, or markSlide3
Types of Examination
Ink (and pens)
Paper (and pencils)
Codes and CiphersSlide4
Terms to Know
Erasure: erasing part of a document
Indented writing: found on the second page where writing from the top indented the words into the second
Uniqueness: makes handwriting a type of physical evidence like fingerprints; has individual characteristics
Exemplar: sample of known handwriting, print, etc.Slide5
Who Examines them?
Graphologist: attempts to predict character traits from handwriting examination
Forensic Document examiner: involves the analysis & comparison of questioned documents with known material in order to identify the author or origin of the questioned document
Linguist: Examines the language, punctuation used to determine education level, etc.Slide6
What’s Involved in handwriting analysis?
Involves two phases:
The hardware: ink,
, pencils, typewriter, printers, etc.
Line QualityWord and Letter SpacingLetter ComparisonPen LiftsPen Pressure
Unusual Letter Formation
Diacritic Placement—dotted I’s, crossed t’s
Ransom Note Activity
Can you determine who wrote the ransom note?Slide9
How is Handwriting Identification done?
Analysis of the “
Analysis of the questioned or unknown writing
Comparison of the questioned writing with the known writing.
Evaluation of the evidence, including the similarities and dissimilarities between the “questioned” and “known” writing.Slide10
How should Handwriting Samples be handled?
The subject should not be shown the questioned document
The subject is not told how to spell words or use punctuation
The subject should use materials similar to those of the
document (paper, pen)
The dictated text should match some parts of the document
The subject should be asked to sign the text
Always have a witnessSlide11
Can you Forge a Signature?
Blank Piece of Paper
Write your Signature 5 times.
Now try to write your signature EXACTLY as you did in the 5
Ask your partner to write your signature EXACTLY as you did in the 5
Complete the handout.Slide12
Suspects will often try to disguise their writing.
Inconsistent slant and formation
Major changes from letter to letter
Often use block lettering
Often write with the wrong hand
Can you Successfully Disguise your writing??
Write this sentence normally:
I am in possession of the secret formula for Super Cola.
Write the sentence again, trying to make it look different, but at a normal rate of speed
Write the sentence a third time, with you other hand.
Complete the handout.Slide14
Handwriting Analysis Activities
Top-of-the LetterBottom-of-LetterSpacingSlantEven writing that looks different will have the same results with these analyses.
How can typewriting be identified?
The type can help determine the make and model of typewriters
Compare to class standards for each machine
Must be a visual comparison
Serial numbers can identify particular machines
How are photocopiers, printers and fax machines analyzed?
Look for defect marks: glass paten, inner cover or mechanical portion of copiers produce images and may have damage
TTI: transmitting terminal identifier that is at the top of each fax page is important point of comparison; analyze number of characters, their style, and position in the header
Printer types: impact(thermal & dot-matrix)
nonimpact (ink jet & laser printer)Slide17
What are some class characteristics for these?
Type of toner or ink
Chemical composition of the toner
Type of toner to paper fusing methodSlide18
a traditional measure of the hardness of the "leads" (actually made of graphite) in pencils. The hardness scale, from softer to harder, takes the form ..., 3B, 2B, B, HB, F, H, 2H, 3H, 4H, ..., with the standard "number 2" pencil being of hardness 2H.Slide20
How is ink analyzed?
Chromatography--physically separate mixtures of gases, liquids or dissolved.
HPLC--high-performance liquid chromatography
Ink Catalogs: US Treasury Dept. has a systematic catalog of inks according to their dye patterns using TLC
Tagging: programs that slightly changes the ink year by year for identification purposesSlide21
Paper Chromatographywith Ink
Two samples of black ink from two different manufacturers run using paper chromatography.Ink is added on line Solvent moves up the paper carrying the ink molecules with itSlide22
Paper Chromatography LabSlide23
Techniques for Uncovering Alterations, Obliterations, VariationsSlide24
You will be given a black ink pen.Each of you will write the same message.Give the teacher your handwriting sample when you are finished. Sign your name on the bottom in pencil.
Write the following:
I have your daughter. Do what you are told and no one will get hurt. Put 100,000 dollars worth of 20’s in a suitcase and place it in locker number C8160 at the bus depot. I will get back in touch with you aas to the whereabouts of your daughter.
Your loyal fan.Slide25Slide26Slide27Slide28Slide29Slide30Slide31