Archaic Greece

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Archaic Greece




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Presentations text content in Archaic Greece

Slide1

Archaic Greece

700-480bc

Slide2

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

major points that typify the Archaic Age:

Slide3

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

major points that typify the Archaic Age:

The formation of the city-state (

polis

)

Slide4

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

major points that typify the Archaic Age:

The formation of the city-state (

polis

)

Colonization

Slide5

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

major points that typify the Archaic Age:

The formation of the city-state (

polis

)

Colonization

Evolution of warfare

Slide6

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

major points that typify the Archaic Age:

The formation of the city-state (

polis

)

Colonization

Evolution of warfare

Panhellenism

Slide7

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

major points that typify the Archaic Age:

The formation of the city-state (

polis

)

Colonization

Evolution of warfare

Panhellenism

And also some notes on citizenship and the art and literature of the period

Slide8

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

1. The growth of the city-state (

polis

)

=central city and its surrounding territory

Remember that “DEMOS” is the land and the people, the territorial community of the Dark Age

Two bodies of government already formed in that period: the assembly (men of fighting age) and the council of “elders”

But formal political unification of the demos did not yet exist

Central government had not come into power

Slide9

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

1. The growth of the city-state (

polis

)

Political unification (

Synoecism

)

Unites the households of the central town and those of the territory around it in a formal, identifying statehood

SYN + OIKOS + ISMOS

Government

Aristocratic:

basileis

Variations on a common theme:

Eliminate the dominant

basileus

Distribute power among other aristocrats

Increase power of aristocratic council of elders (over against assembly of people)

Slide10

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

1. The growth of the city-state (

polis

)

Government

Aristocratic:

basileis

Variations on a common theme:

Eliminate the dominant

basileus

Distribute power among other aristocrats

Increase power of aristocratic council of elders (over against assembly of people)

The opposite of this trend, again from within, is the periodic shift to TYRANNY in Archaic poleis

Usually moves toward a democracy one strongman at a time

Slide11

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

1. The growth of the city-state (

polis

)

Government (cont.)

Necessary due to changing conditions (population, war)

Not the same everywhere (cf. Sparta)

Magistracies created (define oligarchy)

Various functions, various titles: archon,

basileus

,

polemarch

,

prytanis

, etc.

Boule

(council) has the power in Archaic Greece

Ecclesia (assembly) is handicapped by the weight of aristocratic elders in

boule

Political history in many parts of Greece will see the struggle for increased power won by the assembly

Slide12

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

2. Colonization

Spain to Colchis, 800-500

Two major needs fed by colonization:

1. import goods (especially metals)

2. territory for increased population, to find and found good land for new poleis

Apoikia

: colonies and metropolis

Slide13

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

Slide14

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

2. Colonization

Spain to Colchis, 800-500

Two major needs fed by colonization:

1. import goods (especially metals)

2. territory for increased population, to find and found good land for new poleis

Apoikia

: colonies and metropolis

Addresses distribution of space and wealth – but only partly

Slide15

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

A note on classes and citizenship

Basically three classes in Archaic Greece:

The 20% at the top: aristocrats on inherited land, many in the cash crop business (wine and olives)

The 30% at the very bottom: poorest of the citizen farmers, many of whom end up sharecropping or mortgaging their

kleros

(ancestral lot) and paying for it with crops from the land (rank as

thetes

)

The 50% in the middle – the “middling man” – survive, not wealthy, but not dependent on the rich

Gradations throughout

Division defined as AGATHOI and KAKOI (cf. hoi polloi)

Slide16

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

A note on classes and citizenship

Poverty is difficult

Working for someone else = loss of freedom

Slaves at least have protection of

oikos

; what does a poor farmer have?

Various epithets denote the landless class, the poorest farmers:

Argos: “naked ones”

Corinth: “wearers of dog-skin helmets”

Sicyon: “wearers of sheep-skins”

Epidaurus: “dusty feet”

Slide17

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

A note on classes and citizenship

Poverty is difficult

Worse case were “between free person and slave” – Cf. helots

Worst case (measured by freedom and ability to be socially mobile) were slaves: no freedom, simply property

Slide18

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

A note on classes and citizenship

Citizenship does not denote equality

Women do not have any political power

Men (18 and older) had rights, but based on money and social standing

Property requirements kept most but the rich out of office, even some out of the assembly

Again, history will unfold as struggle in many poleis for democracy, but will not be achieved in other places

Slide19

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

A note on classes and citizenship

Women are still important

Share priesthoods with men

Stability of household

What did 50% of the ENTIRE population do all day?

Slide20

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

Slide21

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

A note on classes and citizenship

Women are still important

Share priesthoods with men

Stability of household

What did 50% of the ENTIRE population do all day?

A picture of anxieties about the rise of the polis and the incumbent discussion of citizenship: HESIOD

Slide22

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

3. Warfare

The hoplite armyHeavily armored: social and economic reality?The phalanxA picture of equality

Slide23

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

4.

Panhellenism

Oracle at Delphi

Zeus’ sanctuary at Olympia

Games and other religious festivals

Trade

Instruments of war and peace

Oikos

– demos – polis –

amphictyony

ethne

– all one Greek thing, but still 100’s of little city-states

By the end of the Archaic period, the two most powerful ones were SPARTA and ATHENS


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