Chapter 30: Striving for Independence - PowerPoint Presentation

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Chapter  30:  Striving for Independence
Chapter  30:  Striving for Independence

Chapter 30: Striving for Independence - Description


India Early 20 th century 19001941 Indias population increased dramatically Environmental pressure deforestationdeclining farm land Society divided into classes peasants wealthy property owners ID: 698362 Download Presentation

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Slide1

Chapter 30: Striving for IndependenceSlide2
Slide3

India: Early 20th century

1900-1941, India’s population increased dramatically Environmental pressure,

deforestation-declining farm landSociety divided into classes

: peasants, wealthy property owners

,

urban craftspeople, traders

, workersMany languages; English common medium of communication of Western-educated middle classMajority practiced HinduismMuslims about one-quarter of population-majority in northwest & in eastern BengalSlide4

British Rule & Indian Nationalism

Colonial India ruled by

viceroy & administered by Indian Civil ServiceTechnology mitigated dangers of

industrialization

suppressed development of

radical

politicsmaximized benefit to Britain & Civil ServiceAt turn of century, most Indians accepted British rule, but racism & discrimination inspired Hindus to establish Indian National Congress -1885Muslims, fearful of Hindu

dominance & encouraged by Britain founded All-India

Muslim League in

1906Two independence movementsSlide5

British Rule & Indian Nationalism

British resisted India’s efforts to industrializeIndia’s

first steel mill established in 1911symbol of national pride1918-1919, tensions increased between Brits & Indians

Vague promises

of

self-government

Turning Point-Amritsar MassacreBritish general ordered troops to fire into a crowd of 10,000 demonstratorsSlide6

Mahatma Gandhi & Militant Nonviolence

English educated lawyer-practiced in South Africa

Returned to India & joined Indian National Congress Political ideas included

ahimsa

(nonviolence)

&

satyagraha (search for truth)Moved political efforts from elite to massesSlide7

India Moves Toward Independence

In 1920s

, Indians controlled education, economy, & public works

Business people

looked to

Gandhi’s

successor Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964)—for leadershipWorld War II divided the Indian peopleIndians contributed heavily to war effort, Indian National Congress opposed warMinority joined Japanese sideSlide8

Partition & Independence

In 1940, Muslim League’s leader

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, demanded country for Muslims After World War II, Britain’s new Labour

Party government prepared for

independence

Plan was rushed through before full compromise reached

Mutual animosity between Indian National Congress & Muslim League led to partition of India into two states: India & PakistanViolence & massive disruption followed as Hindus left predominantly Muslim areas & Muslims left predominantly Hindu areasHundreds of thousands diedSlide9

Colonial Africa: Economic

& Social Changes, 1900-1945

Outside Algeria, Kenya, S. Africa, few Europeans lived in

Africa

exported

raw materials-few Africans benefitted

Africans forced to work in European-owned mines & plantations under harsh conditions for little or no payColonialism provided little modern health careColonial policies worsened public health, undermined African family, gave rise to large cities & racial discriminationSlide10

Religious & Political Changes

During colonial era, many Africans turned

to Christianity or IslamContrast between Western liberal

ideas

&

realities

of racial discrimination contributed to rise of nationalismSlide11

Background to Revolution: Mexico in 1910

Independence-1821-

society deeply divided-few wealthy-most poor peasants

Most good land owned by

wealthy & US companies

Corruption, bribery rampant

In 1910, General Porfirio Diaz ruled for 34 years Mexico City modernized showplace brought wealth to few businessmen discrimination against nonwhite majorityaverage

Mexican’s standard of

living declinedSlide12

Revolution/Civil War in Mexico, 1911–1920

Mexican Revolution haphazard social

revolution Leaders represented different segments of societyMadero overthrew

Diaz in 1911

, then he was overthrown

by

Huerta in 1913Constitutionalists Carranza & Obregon led disaffected middle class & industrial workersOrganized armies that overthrew Huerta in 1914Slide13

Mexican Revolution: Civil War

Emiliano Zapata led peasant revoltPancho

Villa organized army in N. Mexico Neither able to lead national revolution

Zapata defeated & killed by

Constitutionalists-1919

Villa

assassinated- 1923Slide14

Revolution/Civil War in Mexico, 1911–1920

Constitutionalists

took over after years of fighting, 2 million

casualties;

tremendous

damage

Passed agrarian reforms-proposed social programs-appealed to workers & middle classRevolution lost momentum in 1920s1928, National Revolutionary Party foundedCardenas, removed generals from government, redistributed land, replaced church-run schools

w/

government schools

, expropriated foreign-owned oil companies When Cardenas’s term ended in 1940,

Mexico still land of poor farmers-small industrial

base

Revolution

established

stable political system, tamed

military & Catholic

Church; laid foundation

for later

industrialization

sparked

new creativity in

artsSlide15

Transformation of Argentina

At end of 19th c., railroads & refrigerators allowed Argentina to become major exporter of meat

Pampas-great producer of meat/wheatGovernment represented

interests of

oligarquia

,

small group of wealthy landowners Only cared about farmingForeign companies built railroads, processing plants & public utilitiesExported agricultural goodsImported manufactured goodsSlide16

Brazil & Argentina, to 1929

Brazil’s elite coffee &

cacao planters & rubber exporters resembled Argentine elitelavish lifestyles

allowed British to build railroads, harbors

imported all manufactured goods

Both

had small but outspoken middle classes-demanded share in government-looked to Europe as modelDisruption of European industry & world trade in World War I weakened land-owning classes in Argentina & Brazil Urban

middle class

&

wealthy landowners shared power at expense of landless peasants

& urban workersDuring 1920s, peace &

high prices for agricultural exports allowed both Argentina

&

Brazil to

industrialize

intro

of new technologies left them

dependent on

advanced industrial

countries

Aviation &

radio introduced

during

1920s

;

European

&

U.S. companies dominated both

sectorsSlide17

The Depression & Vargas Regime in Brazil

Depression significant turning point

exports plummeted & economies collapsed, Argentina & Brazil,

turned to authoritarian

regimes

Vargas

staged a coup & followed a policy that increased import duties & promoted national firms & state-owned enterprisesIndustrialization brought usual environmental consequences: mines, urbanization, slums, deforestationreforms benefited urban workers-did nothing to

help

landless

peasantsEconomic recovery unequally distributed1938

, Vargas staged second coup, abolished constitution, made Brazil fascist

state & created precedence of

political

violence

Overthrown in

military coup in

1954Slide18

Argentina After 1930

Depression hurt Argentina-political consequences delayed

for years1930, General Jose Uriburu

overthrew

popularly elected president

&

initiated thirteen years of rule by generals & oligarquia1943, Colonel Juan Peron led another coup-modeled government on Germany’s Nazi regimeAs World War II turned against Nazis, Peron & wife Eva Peron appealed to urban workers

Created new

base of

support-allowed Peron to win presidency & established populist dictatorship

Sponsored rapid industrialization-spent lavishly on social welfare projectsPeron unable

to create

stable government-after

his wife died in

1952-overthrown in

military

coupSlide19

Conclusion:Politics &

Economics under Imperialism

Peoples of sub-Saharan Africa & India remained under colonial rule after war

Elites

worked toward

independence-ordinary

people wanted social justiceThough politically independent, Mexico, Argentina, & Brazil economically tied to industrializing nationsArgentina & Brazil moved toward economic independence but fell victim to social unrest, militarism & dictatorshipSlide20

Conclusion:

Problems of IndependenceIndia

gained independence, but torn apart by ethnic conflictDesire for independence did not always unite people against colonial rulers because

of

social, ethnic,

&

religious divisions within their populations

Shom More....
By: min-jolicoeur
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