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Unit 3, Lesson 18
How Has the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment Changed the Constitution?Slide2
No person shall be. . .deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law."Slide3
Fourteenth Amendment, §1
No State. . .shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law. . . Slide4
QuestionsEasy ones first. . .
Who is entitled to due process of law?Who or what must provide due process?When is due process of law required?Slide5
What is due process of law? Who decides what process is due?Culturally determined?Evolving or static?
What is meant by "life, liberty, or property"?Slide6
Meaning: Magna Carta, 1215
No freeman shall be taken, imprisoned,...or in any other way destroyed...except by the lawful judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land. To no one will we sell, to none will we deny or delay, right or justice.
Words imply fair
procedure (“how” action
Steps government must
Use before taking away
Who decides process “due”
Policy makers make rulesJudges interpret constitutions (national/state) Slide9
What are life, liberty, property?
Common sense meaningsBroader meaningsLife Includes corporationsLiberty includes movement and (past) contractsProperty includes reputation, job, inventionsSlide10
Due process in practice
Criminal-- Notice, fair trial, counsel, pre and post processesCivil-- Notice, hearing, employ counsel, impartial decision-maker
Civil includes administrative actions
E.g., termination of benefits, school discipline, licensing/regulation
Two additional dimensions of due process
Substantive due processIncorporation of Bill of RightsSlide12
“SUBSTANTIVE” due process
There are some things governments cannot do at all, no matter what procedures they follow“Fundamental rights” analysisU.S. Supreme Court decides what government cannot do Slide13
Examples of substantive due process
Late 19th century: Liberty of contractState and national economic regulatory laws struck down20th century: Right of privacyLaws banning interracial marriage, abortion, and some sexual practices struck downSlide14
“Incorporation” of Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights limits national government14th Amendment due process clause limits states Does 14th Amendment due process mean Bill of Rights also limits states?Slide15
Supreme Court embraces “selective incorporation”
Not all rights in Bill of Rights are equalDue process requires states to respect rights “fundamental to scheme of ordered justice”Whether right in Bill of Rights limits state decided case-by-caseSlide16
Future of due process
Will government be given more leeway over criminal and civil proceedings?Will courts “discover” additional “fundamental rights” or back away from recognized ones?How will social/cultural changes affect concept?
How Has the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment Changed the Constitution Fifth Amendment No person shall be deprived of life liberty or property without due process of law ID: 207817 Download Presentation