Designing Smart Cities:

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Designing Smart Cities:

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Designing Smart Cities:

Opportunities and Regulatory ChallengesCREATe ConferenceUniversity of Strathclyde, Glasgow, 31 March – 1 April 2015  The Emergence of SMART CCTV  Professor William WebsterCentre for Research into Information, Surveillance and Privacy (CRISP)University of Stirling


Components of a CCTV System

Camera (lens), fixed or mobile, analogue or digitalTelecoms infrastructureVisual display equipment, including camera controlsRecording and storage equipmentControl centre and storage facilityStreet furniture, including signageOperators, including operational training, skills and surveillance practices (monitoring protocols and norms)Operational guides, including Codes of PracticeRegulation, including legislationManagement processes, financial and performance indicatorsAccountability and oversight arrangementsLinks to criminal justice system


So, What Makes a Smart CCTV System?

A CCTV system that is:More effective (at what?)More powerful?More sophisticated?More technologically advanced?Multi-functional or multi-purpose?More intelligent?Easier to use?Less invasive?Privacy enhancing?Cheaper?


A Typology of Public Space CCTV

TypeFeaturesProactiveLive surveillance from a dedicated control room with recording, storage and playback facilities. Allows for an immediate response to incidents as they occur.ReactiveRecording, storage and playback facilities. Provides access to footage of incidents after the event has occurred.Non-activeNo monitoring, storage or playback facilities. Acts as a visual deterrent by using fake ‘cameras’ to create the illusion of surveillance.Auto-active‘Smart’Live computerised surveillance incorporating automated ‘intelligent’ systems. Can include data-matching.


Smart Developments in CCTV

- integration - digitisation - automation -- expansion - standardisation - computerisation -Integration and standardisation of existing systems and practicesCentralised control centresExpansion and new technological componentsDrones, head cams, mobile cameras, body worn camerasOther sensors, infra-red, microwave, heat, sniffing, listening…Image recognition and analysis (Smart CCTV)Face, movement and activity recognitionObject tracking and analysisANPR systemsNoise analysisSophisticated integrated surveillance systemsVirtual tracking, identification and profiling


Smart CCTV

No agreed definition of ‘Smart CCTV’‘A visual surveillance system that is integrated with other ICTs and is capable of automatically processing images alongside other digital information for predefined purposes’Image analysisNew sensory devicesNew data integration capabilitiesPerceived to be ‘more intelligent’Allows for mass ‘real’ (or real-time) surveillance, smaller human intervention (reduces cost) and quicker decisions


Privacy Friendly Smart CCTV

Can ‘smart’ technologies be used to enhance aspects of privacy?The ‘blurring’ of personal data (faces)Retrospective ‘unmasking’The ‘masking’ of personal space and propertyCCTV ‘app’s’ and web-mapping‘Sleeping’ camerasCCTV operator performance management systemsTargeted surveillanceANPR – automated deletion of records


Issues and Implications

Are citizens – the surveyed – aware of what cameras and systems do?Is there a need for greater public awareness – and is this linked to the acceptability of systems? Would attitudes change is there was greater awareness of the ‘smartness’ of systems?To what extent are Smart CCTV systems a greater infringement on privacy than normal systems?How smart is smart – how reliable are smart systems?Is there robust evidence that Smart CCTV is more effective?Is Smart CCTV a good example of ‘function creep’?Does regulation need to evolve as the technology becomes smarter?How many systems are evolving into Smart CCTV systems?How do providers identify the most appropriate Smart CCTV systems?What are the driving forces for introducing Smart CCTV?

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