Module 9 Drugs and Consciousness

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Module 9 Drugs and Consciousness




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Presentations text content in Module 9 Drugs and Consciousness

Slide1

Module 9

Drugs and Consciousness

Slide2

9-1:

WHAT ARE SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS, AND WHAT ROLES DO TOLERANCE, WITHDRAWAL, AND ADDICTION PLAY IN THESE DISORDERS?

Psychoactive drugA chemical substance that alters perceptions and moodsSubstance use disorderContinued substance craving and use despite significant life disruption and/or physical risk

Drugs and Consciousness

Tolerance and Addiction

Slide3

The

severity

of

substance use disorder varies from

mild (

2 to 3 indicators) to moderate (4 to 5 indicators) to severe (6 or more indicators).

When Is

Drug

Use a Disorder?

Slide4

Tolerance

The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug’s effect.

Neuroadaptation: the user’s brain chemistry adapts to offset the drug effect.Tolerance occurs with continued use of alcohol and some other drugs (but not marijuana)

Tolerance and Addiction

Slide5

Tolerance and Addiction:

Drug Tolerance

Slide6

Addiction

Compulsive craving of drugs or certain behaviors (such as gambling) despite known harmful consequencesWithdrawalDiscomfort and distress that follow discontinuing an addictive drug or behaviorTolerance and Addiction

Slide7

9-2:

HOW HAS THE CONCEPT OF ADDICTION CHANGED?

Concept of addictionExtended to cover many behaviorsDegree and scope debatedAddiction as disease needing treatmentOffered for many driven, excessive behaviors that become compulsive and dysfunctionalLabeling a behavior doesn’t explain itAPA

(2013) manual proposes further study of Internet gaming disorder

Addiction

Slide8

9-3: WHAT ARE DEPRESSANTS, AND WHAT ARE THEIR EFFECTS?

Depressants:

Drugs such as alcohol, barbiturates (tranquilizers), and opiates that calm neural activity and slow body functionsAlcohol Acts as disinhibitorSlows neural processing and is a potent sedative when paired with sleep deprivationDisrupts memory and has long-term effect on brain and cognition; impairs growth of synaptic connections

Reduces self-awareness and self-control; produces myopia by focusing on arousing situation at expense of normal inhibitions and future consequence

Types of Psychoactive Drugs: Depressants

Slide9

MRI scans show

brain shrinkage in women with alcohol use disorder (left) compared with women in a control group

(right).

Disordered drinking shrinks the brain

Slide10

Expectations influence behavior

Being

able to attribute social behaviors or sexual responses to alcohol releases inhibitionsFourteen intervention studies with college students lowered positive expectations of alcohol and reduced drinking in the ensuing monthAlcohol use disorder (popularly known as alcoholism

)

Alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdrawal, and a drive to continue problematic useAlcohol Expectancy Effects

Slide11

In addition to alcohol, this type of psychoactive drug includes:

Barbiturates

Depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgmentCan impair cognitive functioning; potentially lethal when combined with alcoholIncludes Nembutal, Seconal

, and Amytal

OpiatesInclude opium and its derivatives, such as heroin; includes the narcotics (codeine, morphine, methadone)Constricts pupils, slows breathing, causes lethargyDepress neural activity,

lessening pain and anxietyWithdrawal when repeated ingestion is stopped; brain stops producing natural endorphins Depressants

Slide12

9-4: WHAT ARE STIMULANTS, AND WHAT ARE THEIR EFFECTS?

Stimulants:

Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, Ecstasy [MDMA], and methamphetamine) that excite neural activity and speed up body functionsInvolves dilation of pupils, increase in heart and breathing rates, rise in blood sugar, and drop in appetiteOften involves increase in energy and self-confidence

Types

of Psychoactive Drugs: Stimulants

Slide13

Nicotine

Is the stimulating and highly addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco

Signals the central nervous system to release a flood of neurotransmittersDiminishes appetite, boosts alertness and mental efficiency, calms anxiety, and reduces sensitivity to painAddiction to nicotine involves acute craving and withdrawal symptoms which contribute to relapse; symptoms gradually dissipate over six monthsSmoking correlates with higher depression, chronic disability, and divorce, and a reduced life expectancy

Stimulants: Nicotine

Slide14

Nicotine reaches the brain within 7 seconds, twice as fast as intravenous heroin

.

Within minutes, the amount in the blood soars.

Where there’s smoke . . .

The physiological effects of nicotine

Slide15

Cocaine

A powerful and addictive stimulant derived from the coca plant; produces temporarily increased alertness and euphoria

Leads to a crash of agitated depression within the hour, after rush of neurotransmitters depletes the brain’s supply as the drug’s effect wears off

Psychological

effects depend partly on dosage and form consumed, but also the situation and user’s expectations and personality

Stimulants: Cocaine

Slide16

Methamphetamine

Related

to its parent drug, amphetamine; triggers release of neurotransmitter dopamineStimulates brain cells and enhances energy and moodAftereffects include irritability, insomnia, hypertension, seizures, social isolation, depression, occasional violenceOver time, use reduces

baseline dopamine levels in the user

Stimulants: Methamphetamine

Slide17

Methamphetamine

Dramatic drug-induced decline

Stimulants

Slide18

Ecstasy (

street

name for MDMA)Is a synthetic stimulant and a mild hallucinogenProduces euphoria and social intimacyLeads to short-term health risks and longer term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and mood and cognitionAlso known as the

hug drug

, and known as Molly in its powdered formStimulants

Slide19

9-5

:

WHAT ARE HALLUCINOGENS, AND WHAT ARE THEIR EFFECTS?HallucinogensPsychedelic (“mind-manifesting”) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input

Types

of Psychoactive Drugs: Hallucinogens

Slide20

Hallucinogens

Can

be derived synthetically (such as LSD and MDMA) or from natural substances (such as marijuana)As experienced hallucinations begin to peak,

people

frequently feel separated from their bodyDream-like scenes experiencedWhether provoked by drugs, loss of oxygen, or extreme sensory deprivation, the brain hallucinates in basically the same way

Hallucinogens

Slide21

Sensations

experienced with hallucinogens are strikingly similar to the

near-death experience:An altered-state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as cardiac arrest)Such experiences are often similar to drug-induced hallucinationsReported by about 10 to 15 percent of patients revived from cardiac arrest

Hallucinogens

Slide22

HALLUCINATION

OR

NEAR DEATH VISION? People under the influence of hallucinogenic drugs often see “a bright light in the center of the field of vision…”

Near-death

experiences may be manufactured in a brain under

stress.Hallucinogens

Slide23

Marijuana

Leaves contain THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol); when smoked or eaten amplifies sensitivity to colors, sounds, tastes, and smells; lingers in body longer than other drugs such as alcoholSynthetic marijuana (K2

,

Spice) mimics THC and has very harmful side effectsRelaxes, disinhibits, and may produce euphoriaIs mild hallucinogen which amplifies sensory sensitivity, impairs motor coordination, perceptual skills, and reaction time

Disrupts memory formation and immediate recallMedical inhaler best for medicinal use to avoid smokeHallucination

Slide24

A Guide to Selected Psychoactive Drugs

Slide25

The percentage of U.S. high school seniors who report having used alcohol, marijuana, or cocaine during the past 30 days largely declined from the late 1970s to 1992, when it partially rebounded for a few years. (Data from Johnston et al., 2015.)

Trends in Drug Use

9-6:

WHY DO SOME PEOPLE BECOME REGULAR USERS OF CONSCIOUNESS-ALTERING DRUGS?

Influences on Drug Use

Slide26

The biopsychosocial approach enables researchers to investigate disordered drug use from

complementary perspectives: biological, psychological, and social-cultural.

Biological influences:Increased risk when seen in identical twins, fraternal twins, siblings, and biological parentsGenetic predispositions and genetically influenced traitsCulprit

genes that may produce deficiencies

in the brain’s natural dopamine reward systemInfluences on Drug Use

Slide27

Psychological influences:

Lacking sense of purpose

Significant stressPsychological disorders, such as depressionSocial-cultural influences:Difficult environmentCultural acceptance of drug useNegative peer influences

Influences on Drug Use

Slide28

Kids don’t

smoke if

their friends don’t (Philip Morris

, 2003

). A correlation-causation question: Does the close link between teen smoking and friends’ smoking reflect peer influence? Teens seeking similar

friends? Or both?Peer Influence

Slide29

Research

findings on drug use suggest three channels of influence for drug prevention and treatment programs:

Educate young people about the long-term costs of a drug’s temporary pleasures.Help young people find other ways to boost their self-esteem and discover their purpose in life.Attempt to modify peer associations or to “inoculate” youths against peer pressures by training them in refusal skills.

Influences

on Drug Use


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