Photography Merit Badge

Photography Merit Badge Photography Merit Badge - Start

2015-10-10 124K 124 0 0

Photography Merit Badge - Description

Photography Requirements. Explain how the following elements and terms affect the quality of a picture: . Light -- natural light/ambient, flash . Exposure -- aperture (f-stops), shutter speed, depth of field . ID: 156014 Download Presentation

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Photography Merit Badge




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Slide1

Photography Merit Badge

Slide2

Photography Requirements

Explain how the following elements and terms affect the quality of a picture:

Light -- natural light/ambient, flash

Exposure -- aperture (f-stops), shutter speed, depth of field

Composition -- rule of thirds, leading lines, framing, depth

Angle of view

Stopping action

Explain the basic parts and operation of a film camera or digital camera. Explain how an exposure is made when you take a picture.

Discuss with your counselor the differences between a film camera and a digital camera. Describe how computer software allows you to make adjustments to a digital photograph after it is taken.

Slide3

Photography Requirements

Do ONE of the following:

Produce a picture story using the photojournalistic technique of documenting an event. Share your plan with your counselor and get your counselor's input and approval before you proceed. Then, using either a film camera or a digital camera, produce your approved picture story. Process your images and select eight to 12 images that best tell your story. Arrange your images in order, then mount the prints on a poster board. If you are using digital images, you may create a slide show on your computer or produce printouts for your poster board. Share your picture story with your counselor.

Choose a topic that interests you to photograph for an exhibit or display. Get your counselor's approval, then photograph (digital or film) your topic. Process your images. Choose 20 of your favorite images and mount them on poster board. Share your display with your counselor. If you are using digital images, you may create a slide show on your computer or produce printouts for your poster board.

Discuss with your counselor the career opportunities in photography. Pick one that interests you and explain how to prepare for such a career. Discuss with your counselor the education and training such a career would require.

Slide4

Objectives

Basic photography termsDigital camera technologyUnderstand your cameraTake photographsDownload imagesEditing digital photographsDisplay photographs (web, email, printing)Careers

Slide5

What is a good image?

In FocusProper ExposurePleasing to the viewer

Slide6

Basics of Digital Photography

Compose:  This is the creative or artistic part. Arrange all of the elements of the picture within the frame or viewfinder hopefully to produce what should be a pleasing composition.Expose:  This is the scientific and mechanical part . Capture the image through the lens of the camera and preserve the image for posterity.

Slide7

It’s all about the light!

Basics of Digital Photography

Slide8

It’s all about the Light!

Basics of Digital Photography

Natural

light (sunlight)Ambient (light in this room)Flash

Slide9

Flash

Camera

Flash.

Why do we use

it?

Fill

Flash.

Main Light.

Stop Action.

Slide10

Flash

Flash ModeFor dim light or for “filling in” backlit pictures. Most cameras default to auto flash, but you need to know how to manually turn the flash off or on for special conditions. Turn off the flash when it will be useless. For example, photographing a person far away under dim light conditions.

Slide11

ISO International Standards Organization

ISO is the film or digital sensors “sensitivity” to the light entering. Each stop in ISO will double or halve the sensitivityExamples of full stops are: 100, 200, 400 or 800

Lower

ISO = less

sensitive

Higher

ISO = more

sensitive

Slide12

Shutter Speed

Shutter

speed

is

how long the shutter is open and is indicated in fractions of a

second.

Examples

of full stops are: 1/125, 1/250, 1/500 or

1/1000

Faster

shutter speeds = less

light

slower

shutter speeds = more light

Slide13

Rough

guidelines for the following outdoor lighting condition @ ISO 400 – f/8

Sunny

day outdoors

1/2000

sec

Hazy

bright day

1/1000 sec

Bright

cloudy day without shadows

1/500

sec

Overcast

day, or open shade on a sunny day

1/250

sec

A

heavily overcast day Deep shade

1/125 sec

Woods

on an bright overcast day

1/60 sec

Before

a thunderstorm or a heavily overcast day

1/30

sec

Slide14

Aperture

Aperture is the size of the lens opening and is referred to as an “f stop”. Higher values represent a smaller aperture, lower values represent a larger aperture Examples of full stops are: f2, f2.8, f4, f5.6, f8, f11 or f16Smaller aperture = less lightLarger aperture = more light

Slide15

Aperture and Shutter Speed

Aperture and shutter speed interact to give a correct exposure.There is a balance between the two.

These settings would give about the same exposure:

Slide16

Shutter Speed + Aperture = Exposure

Shutter speed and aperture interact to

produce good

exposure.

Auto

Exposure

is usually the

default and

can be overridden on some cameras by setting the camera to:

Aperture-priority

auto:

The

user sets the aperture

and

the

camera sets the

speed.

Shutter-priority

auto:

The

user sets shutter speed

and the

camera sets the

aperture.

Manual

:

The

user sets both speed and aperture.

Slide17

Depth of Field -DOF

Slide18

Depth of Field -DOF

If the exposure is made with a wide aperture ( like F2.8 ), then objects farther away from the subject are thrown farther out of focus. This effect is referred to as “depth of field”. If the aperture is small (like F22) then objects in the background and foreground will appear sharper.

Slide19

White Balance

White balance adjusts the white color quality of your image. Digital cameras usually have adjustable white balance settings for electronic flash, shade, sunlight, fluorescent lighting and tungsten lighting.Most cameras default to “auto” white balance and some cameras allow it to be set separately.

Slide20

The Rule of Thirds

Place important elements of the

composition

where the lines intersect.

Slide21

Framing

Draw attention to center/foreground

Slide22

Contrast

Contrast adds interest by emphasizing difference in tone, color texture, size

Slide23

Leading Lines

Lead the viewer’s eyes

Slide24

Balance

Symmetrical balance – divides image into distinct zones.

Slide25

Backgrounds

Add or distract from subject.

Slide26

Backgrounds

Add or distract from subject.

Slide27

Camera Angles

Try different angles

Slide28

 

Camera

Angles

Slide29

Basic Camera Shots

Slide30

The Amount of Scene

Slide31

Stopping Action

When

shooting fast-moving animals such as birds in flight, you may want a shutter speed as high as 1/1250th of a second to freeze your subject.

Proper technique in stabilizing your camera can go a long way

.

Slide32

Time Lapse Photography

Slide33

Time Lapse Photography

A higher shutter speed and ISO can be set for stopping action.

Slide34

Macro

Macro refers to a digital camera function that takes “close-up” pictures—images of objects that are only a few inches away. Most digital cameras have a macro setting and take good macro pictures because of the inherent design of digital cameras.

Slide35

Cameras and How They Work

Slide36

Other Settings

Camera settings (language, auto-off, etc.)Timer (so the photographer can be in the picture)Metering (how the camera decides on brightness)Continuous shooting (camera shoots as fast as it can)Best Shot Selector (multiple shots at different settings)Saturation Control (controlling color intensity)Image Sharpening (electronic improvement of shot)Etc.

Slide37

Equipment

Camera

Operating

manual!

Batteries/power cord.

Use

NiMH

batteries.

Extra storage (memory cards)

Computer interface cable

Optional: lens, Camera bag, tripod, flash, UV

filter, etc

.

Slide38

Digital Camera Features and Terminology

You don’t need to know terminology or your camera’s features, you can just shoot “auto” and hope for the best. OR!If you understand your camera and have experience using it’s features, you will take better pictures.

Slide39

Understanding Your Camera

What are your camera’s abilities and limitations?What features does it have?You need to read and understand your Camera’s operating manual!You need to have experience shooting pictures and studying the results.

Slide40

Pixels

A pixel is a contraction of the term Picture Element. Digital images are made up of small squares, just like a tile mosaic on your kitchen or bathroom wall. Though a digital photograph looks smooth and continuous just like a regular photograph, it's actually composed of millions of tiny squares as shown below.On the left the full image, on the right the area in the red square magnified to show individual pixels.

Slide41

Megapixel

A megapixel is equal to 1 millions pixels. How many megapixels a camera shoots at indicates the maximum size and/or detail of a digital picture. Generally, more pixels are better (and cost more), but it is not only factor that should be considered when choosing a camera.

Slide42

Image Size

Refers to the dimensions of the image, measured in pixels. Pictures taken at smaller sizes require less memory and are suitable for distribution by email or on the web. Conversely, the larger the image, the larger the size at which it can be printed or displayed without loosing quality (becoming “grainy”).

Slide43

Image Size

Image SizePixelsPrint Size (@300dpi)3264 x 24488MP11” x 14”2592 x 1944 5MP8½” x 6½”2048 x 15363MP7” x 5”1600 x 1200 2MP5” x 4”1280 x 9601MP4” x 3”640 x 480 .5MPEmail and Web

Slide44

File Types

J

PEG (JPG): The most common format.

This is a compression format that can be saved at various qualities.

TIFF: A “loss-less” compression format of a higher quality that is better for very high quality prints but has larger file size.

RAW: Actual image from the camera sensor

Slide45

Practice with Your Camera

The best way to take good pictures is to take a lot of them and to experiment with your camera.

Understand your camera settings.Take pictures and do tests: Take the same picture several times while changing the settings for each shot. Then compare the result. What settings work best under what conditions? What are the characteristics of your camera?Digital pictures are FREE until you print them!

Slide46

Practice with Your Camera

Slide47

Transferring Pictures

Most cameras use a USB

cable

that connects the camera to the computer.

Slide48

Storyboard

Slide49

Photographic Display

Slide50

Careera in Photography

Wildlife PhotographyNature and wildlife is one of the primary subjects of photography today. The natural beauty that surrounds us in the form of landscapes, plants, and wildlife is a compelling subject to capture in still images.

There is something deeply compelling about wading in an Alaskan stream with Brown Bears and documenting their beauty and behavior. 

Slide51

Portrait Photography

Careers

in

Photography

Slide52

Media and Sports Photography

Careers in Photography

Slide53

Products and Advertising Photography

Careers in Photography

Slide54

The End


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