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Reaching and Maintaining a Healthy Weight
Reaching and Maintaining a Healthy Weight

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Reaching and Maintaining a Healthy Weight Module 3 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Demonstrate knowledge of the relationship between weight and health Critically evaluate lab tests and field assessment methods for body composition their advantages and their limitations ID: 771445 Download Presentation

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Reaching and Maintaining a Healthy Weight Module 3

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Demonstrate knowledge of the relationship between weight and health. Critically evaluate lab tests and field assessment methods for body composition, their advantages and their limitations. Explain factors that contribute to weight gain and weight loss. Identify personal behaviors that contribute to unhealthy weight control. Develop an action plan that promotes adherence to a healthy body size to reduce the risks of diseases and promotes self-esteem.

SO WHAT IS AN IDEAL BODY? Can you think of what and/who determines what is considered a beautiful body both for males and females?

SO WHAT IS AN IDEAL BODY ? Cont. An ideal body should take into consideration: health rather than looks alone. your age, gender, Your genetics , and your body type. An ideal body is a healthy body that receives adequate nutrients for optimal bodily functions with low risks of developing chronic illnesses regardless of size or shape. In essence, beauty comes from within.

Which body type is considered a normal size?

FACTORS THAT AFFECT WEIGHT GAIN AND WEIGHT LOSS What factors contribute to weight gain or weight loss?

FACTORS THAT AFFECT WEIGHT GAIN AND WEIGHT LOSS cont. BODY TYPE Gynoid pattern (pear shape) and Android pattern (apple shape)

FACTORS THAT AFFECT WEIGHT GAIN AND WEIGHT LOSS cont. In the android pattern, fat distribution is concentrated around the waist. In Gynoid pattern, fat distribution is concentrated around the thighs and hips. An obese person with a small waist may be at less risks of developing cardiovascular diseases than a person of normal weight who carries their fat around the abdomen.

FACTORS THAT AFFECT WEIGHT GAIN AND WEIGHT LOSS cont. FAT DISTRIBUTION Essential fat : minimum amount of fat to maintain healthy functions   Subcutaneous fat : fat that lies directly underneath the skin. It insulates the body and provides cushioning to the bones and organs. Subcutaneous fat is believed to correlate to visceral fat . visceral fat: fat around your organs adipose tissue: some of the functions of adipose tissue is to insulate and protect the internal organs, and is a site of energy storage .

FACTORS THAT AFFECT WEIGHT GAIN AND WEIGHT LOSS cont. METABOLISM Basal metabolic rate  (BMR) refers to the amount of energy, expressed in calories, your body uses at rest.   BMR accounts for about 60 %–90% of the total calories you burn every day It is influenced by genetics, age, gender, and body composition T hermogenesis : energy expended to digest food (10% of the calories we consume)

FACTORS THAT AFFECT WEIGHT GAIN AND WEIGHT LOSS cont. HORMONES Ghrelin  is made in the stomach and sends hunger signals to the brain. It also responds to stressful conditions, which explains why some people eat more when they are stressed Leptin : sends signals to the brain that your body is full. Levels of leptin are lower in thin people and higher in fat people. It is also believed that people with high body fat tend to be leptin resistant.

FACTORS THAT AFFECT WEIGHT GAIN AND WEIGHT LOSS cont. AGE GENDER BODY COMPOSITION

FACTORS THAT AFFECT WEIGHT GAIN AND WEIGHT LOSS cont. PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS The  thyroid  is a small gland located behind your trachea that regulates metabolism. Hyper active thyroid or hyperthyroidism will make your heart beat faster and cause sleep disturbance and weight loss. When the thyroid is sluggish, we use the term “hypothyroidism.” In this case, you may feel depressed with low energy and you may gain weight.

FACTORS THAT AFFECT WEIGHT GAIN AND WEIGHT LOSS cont. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY SLEEP: when you are deprived of sleep, your levels of leptin increase, making you more hungry STRESS: increases your cortisol levels which makes you feel hungry

ASSESSING BODY COMPOSITION LAB TESTS versus FIELD TESTS

ASSESSING BODY COMPOSITION cont. LAB TESTS HYDROSTATIC WEIGHING Air displacement Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Bioelectric Impedance Analysis Can you think of the advantages and disadvantages of each test?

ASSESSING BODY COMPOSITION cont. FIELD TESTS SCALE HEIGHT AND WEIGHT (lab 4 page 7)

ASSESSING BODY COMPOSITION cont. FIELD TESTS SKIN FOLD CALIPERS

ASSESSING BODY COMPOSITION cont. FIELD TESTS BMI (lab textbook page 7) BMI WEIGHT STATUS Below 18.5 Underweight 18.5–24.9 Normal 25.0–29.9 Overweight 30.0 and above Obese  

ASSESSING BODY COMPOSITION cont. FIELD TESTS WAIST-TO-HIP RATIO   Waist to hip ratio chart Health risk Women Men Low 0.80 or lower 0.95 or lower Moderate 0.81–0.85 0.96–1.0 High 0.86 or higher 1.0 or higher    

ASSESSING BODY COMPOSITION cont. FIELD TESTS WAIST MEASUREMENTS HIGH RISK Men: >102 cm (>40 in.) Women: >88 cm (>35 in.)

  OBESITY AND YOUR HEALTH How does being overweight and/or obese affect the different areas of wellness?

  OBESITY AND YOUR HEALTH Diabetes Heart diseases Cancer Emotional health Activities of daily living Social health Economic costs

STRATEGIES TO REACH A HEALTHY BODY SIZE Understanding energy balance: caloric intake versus caloric expenditure It takes a deficit of 3,500 calories to loose 1 pound of fat If your goal is to gain muscle mass, then it takes much longer than losing fat . You will need to add an extra 500 calories a day in order to gain 0.25–0.5 pounds of muscles a week.

STRATEGIES TO REACH A HEALTHY BODY SIZE Use your lab results to set realistic goals Examples: LONG-TERM GOAL : I will lose 20 pounds by ____ (write a 9–12 months date) SHORT-TERM GOAL : I will lose 1–2 pounds per week Once you have determined your long term goals, write what new habits need to take place every week in order to be successful.

STRATEGIES TO REACH A HEALTHY BODY SIZE Now write your S. M. A. R. T. goals. S :  I will stop drinking sodas and soft drinks during the week, and exercise three to four times a week. M:  I will decrease my caloric intake by 250 calories per day, and increase my caloric expenditure by 250 calories per day. I will check my weight every Sunday morning before breakfast. A:   I will ride my bike 5 miles four days per week, and I will walk my dog for 30 minutes each day of the week.

STRATEGIES TO REACH A HEALTHY BODY SIZE R :  I will lose no more than 2 pounds per week. T:  I will start my behavior modification on ________ (write when you will start your new diet and exercise program).

STRATEGIES TO REACH A HEALTHY BODY SIZE PORTION SIZE: Create your plate

STRATEGIES TO REACH A HEALTHY BODY SIZE SHOULD YOU FOLLOW A DIET PLAN? Paleo : the concept behind this diet is the belief that we are supposed to eat like our ancestors, the cavemen during the Paleolithic era meat , fruits, and vegetables. This assumption doesn’t take into consideration that our ancestors ate what was available, when available. Large amount of meat goes against current research that focuses more on plant base diets.

STRATEGIES TO REACH A HEALTHY BODY SIZE DIET PLANS: Atkins : this diet restricts the amount of carbohydrate you consume with the idea that you will start burning fat. Removing any food group from a diet will reduce the amount of calories intake. Recall that carbohydrates are a necessary component of a healthy diet. Like the Paleo diet, high consumption of meat is no longer recommended.

STRATEGIES TO REACH A HEALTHY BODY SIZE DIET PLANS:   South Beach : developed for heart patient, the South Beach diet follows the current recommendations of three meals and two snacks a day, and follows the guidelines for healthy eating. The only down side is the first two weeks of the diet that are very restrictive, and difficult to follow . Keto : prioritizes low carb, high fat intakes. Instead of using carbohydrates for fuel, your body switches to fat storage

STRATEGIES TO REACH A HEALTHY BODY SIZE Which diet should you follow?   Follow a healthy diet you can eat for the rest of your life and that you enjoy!

STRATEGIES TO REACH A HEALTHY BODY SIZE OVERCOMING BARRIERS: what are things that may keep you from reaching your goals?

STRATEGIES TO REACH A HEALTHY BODY SIZE IMPROVING BODY IMAGE Ted Talk -Ending the Pursuit of Perfection Take notes while you watch the video, and answer the following questions: Can you relate in anyways? What strategies can help improve body image and self-esteem? [ textbook Module 4 page 5]

STRATEGIES TO REACH A HEALTHY BODY SIZE TIPS Plan your meals ahead of time, before going to the grocery store Shop for food after you eat, when you are not hungry At the grocery store, stay on the aisle on the outside perimeter of the store; this is where the healthier food is located Shop with a list and stick to it

STRATEGIES TO REACH A HEALTHY BODY SIZE TIPS Prepare and freeze food in the right portion size Prepare healthy snacks the day before, or even better for the entire week Stop eating when you feel 75% full. It takes about 20 minutes for your brain to get the signal that you are full. If you eat until you are full, then you have overeaten.

S. M. A. R. T. GOALS Start working on your S. M. A. R. T. goals Complete textbook labs, and activities

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