Presentations text content in The Roman Army By: Madison Halcovage
The Roman Army
By: Madison HalcovageSlide2
Legions- units of soldiers
Legionaries- soldiers that fight in the army
Maniples- a legion that was divided into smaller groups of 120 men
- the strong men that were in the front of the maniples
- seasoned and experienced warriors
- the veterans that were called upon only when needed
- a seven foot weighted javelin that could be thrown 30 yards
- a sword that was virtually unbreakable and measured 20 inches
Decimate- to destroy
/via- a system of well paved roads
- a shelter made from soldiers shields.Slide3
The Early Army
Able bodied men were expected to fight.
Farmers were sent to Campus
when Rome was threatened.
They were separated into 100 men called centuries.
Officers in the army were patricians.
To become eligible for high public office during the Republic you needed to serve ten years in the army.
that had about 4,000 men.Slide4
Formation of The Army
Then later on
instead of legions they
which was smaller then the legions
Maniples had 120 men in each group.
They were formed in three lines.
The front of the line were the
which was were the stronger men stood.
which was were the more experienced warriors stood.
In the last line was where the
stood and they were the veterans that were called upon to fight only when needed.Slide5
was a seven-foot weighted javelin which could be thrown 30 yards. This was a replacement for the cumbersome thrusting spear.
had a iron head with a softer metal that could fit in a wooden staff.
It was designed so the softer metal would bend on impact and the head of the spear would stick on the shield.
It was designed this way because the head of the spear was so strong that it could not be pulled out and the enemy was forced to leave his shield and go without it.Slide6
is a sword that was just about unbreakable.
It was a short sword that measured 20 inches.
It was a great weapon because it was sharpened on both sides. So it was sharp on both sides.Slide7
To join you needed the three qualifications which were Roman citizenship, good physical condition, and a height of at least 5’ 10.”
A Soldier was paid a reasonable amount in Roman currency for all his efforts.
When the soldier retired after 20 years of service in the military there was a promise of a piece of land waiting for you.
Each soldier was supplied some salt which was used for preserving meat and fish.Slide8
On The Battlefield
When the battle started the legionaries threw there
with great force.
They rushed against their opponent and knock them down with their shield until their enemy lost his balance. When the enemy threw his hands up in the air to get back up the legionary poked him in the stomach with his
If one soldier survived for 15 minutes then he would be taken out of the line and be replaced by the soldier behind him.Slide9
On The Battlefield Continued
If an officer found out that there was a unit of cowardly behavior then he would lower their rations.
If a mutiny was detected every tenth man would be killed. The rest of the group would have to sleep outside the camp until they proved that they were worthy soldiers.
This is where our word
Every century a unit of the army had their own standard.Slide10
On The Battlefield Continued
Every century a unit of the army had their own standard. In the republican times it was a tall pole which had a animal on top that was carved. The animal was usually a wolf, horse, or a boar. It had symbols of past campaigns and victories.
Later in the years the pole had only metal discs and crescents on them.
A standard person that carries things wore an animal skin which was placed over his helmet and uniform.
They could be well seen above the soldiers.
The standard person was called a bearer and he was chosen to lead the soldiers in battle and keep them together.Slide11
The Army Uniform
The Soldiers wore a red woolen red tunic. On top of the tunic they wore a leather shirt that was covered with overlapping iron plates of armor that is attached to metal hinges and leather straps.
Their armor was flexible so that the legionaries could move easily while wearing it.
They wore iron helmets to protect their head. Which had metal cheek pieces attached to it without blocking his vision.Slide12
The Army Uniform Continued
They had molded bronze shin guards.
In cold weather they wore woolen cloaks which were warm for the night.
They wore a combination of sandals and boots which were called
. They had iron studs on the bottom which were supposed to keep the leather from wearing out to quickly
An important job was to
The Army UniformSlide14
A Soldiers Diet
A soldiers diet was made up grain which was wheat or barley.
He grounded it up with a
or a stone and was cooked into bread or porridge. Then he added nuts or some berries. After he added the nuts or berries he washed his meal with vinegary wine.Slide15
Legionaries slept in well protected organized camps that they had helped build.
If the army was on the march then they would have to choose a new site every night. Usually the location was on a hill facing an enemy with supplies like water, timber, and grass for animals.Slide16
On The March
The soldiers trained very hard.
If a soldier camped for long time in one place then they would march at least 20 miles three time a month which could be done in 5 hours.
Searching for another location they legions would travel 18 to 20 miles each day with about 60 pounds of supplies and equipment.
This equipment they carried was armor, weapons, a sickle, a spade, an axe, a wicker, baskets, a few cooking pots, three days worth of grain, rope, and some wooden stakes.
The well paved roads called
was needed so that the troops could quickly get to one battle site to another and to send off messages.
The paved roads were built by the legionaries.Slide17
The legionaries got up very early in the morning and went to line up for their inspections without eating breakfast.
After the inspections they received their duties including cleaning the camps and toilets, repairing boots and studs, sharpening studs, polishing armor, and building bridges and roads.
Every group of soldiers had builders, engineers, surveyors, nurse assistants, scouts, and clerks.
Legionaries were not very active when they were not doing work. When they were not doing work they were spreading seeds around.Slide18
Sometimes the Romans surrounded a city and cut off the food supplies and waiting for the enemies to surrender could be a long time. So they arranged to storming the city walls.
In order to do this they needed siege machines.
The Romans learned about siege machines from the Greeks.
One simple siege machine was called a battering ram which was a huge log that was cut to a point at one of the ends which could be strengthened with iron. It was held by ropes from a wooden frame.
It would be swung toward
the wooden gate of an enemy’s fortress until it was damaged.Slide19
Siege Machines Continued
A siege tower was a tall wooden tower that was built on wheels which was covered with skins of freshly killed animals. This made the building fireproof.
When the tower was pushed against the wall of the fortress the soldiers hiding inside would fight hand-to-hand against each other.Slide21
The legionaries developed a good plan to charge up to a well defended wall.
Their plan was called a testudo which was a shelter made by overlapping shields. The word testudo means tortoise in Latin.
It was four rows of six men. The men in the front held their shields forward when the men in the middle held their shields above their head.
It moved slow like a tortoise because the men had to march in unison.Slide22
Siege Machines Continued
The Greeks made many weapons that worked by tension using hair or string.
The Romans made a lot of things from the Greek models.
They made the scorpion which was a big mechanical bow and arrow that was used to send arrows into wooden fortresses.
They also made the ballista which was a catapult that was put on a cart. It threw stones that were 60 pounds.
They made the
which was a bigger catapult that threw larger rocks and burning logs.Slide24
When a general won a battle or another great victory then the Senate rewarded.
He rewarded him with a triumph which was a grand civil and religious spectacle.
For the general’s triumph he wore a purple toga, laurel crown, and red boots.
He drove a chariot that was pulled by two white horses. He only drove the chariot through a gate of the city that was only opened for special occasions.
In front of the general were his chained prisoners of war. Behind him was a parade.Slide25
Military Triumph Continued
After sacrifices at the temple there was a banquet.
After all the ceremonies the prisoners were sold off to people as slaves.
The general was then called
which means man of triumph.Slide26
Thanks For WatchingSlide27