New Product and Process Development (1) PowerPoint Presentation

New Product and Process Development (1) PowerPoint Presentation

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김은희. , . 조인성. Goodness of Fit. 디자인의 궁극적인 목적은. form . 이다. . . Form . 형성의 이유. : . 세상이 . 완전히 . regular or homogeneous . 하다면 . force . 와 . ID: 434584

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Slide1

New Product and Process Development (1)

김은희

,

조인성

Slide2

Goodness of Fit

디자인의 궁극적인 목적은

form

이다

.

Form

형성의 이유

:

세상이

완전히

regular or homogeneous

하다면

force

form

이 필요 없지만

,

irregular

한 세상에서는

form

필요함

.

모든 디자인의 문제는 두 가지의

entities,

form

context

사이의

fitness

를 성취하기

위한 노력으로 부터

시작되며

,

Form

:

문제에 대한 해결책을 의미

. Context

에 대한 명확한 이해를 바탕으로

디자인 을 구성함

.

Context

:

문제를 정의

.

본질적 속성을 구성하는

요건

.

Design: form

context

를 구성하는 총체에 관한 것

.

,

우리가

디자인에 대해

말할 때

,

진정한 목적은

form

그 하나만이 아니라

, form

그것의

context

를 조합하는 앙상블을 말하는

것임

.

The

rightness of the form depends on the degree to which it fits the

rest

of the

ensemble

.

다양한

ensemble

의 예

(p.16)

Slide3

그렇다면

form

context

사이의

fit

characterizing

해보자

.

Real world

에서 우리가 다루고 있는

context

를 설명할

unitary

description

없음

.

Context

는 매우 복잡하고 여러 변수를 동시에 고려해야 하는 속성이 있으므로 단일한 방식으로는 설명이 불가능

하고

,

Form

역시 테스트 하는 것은 비용이 많이 들거나 불가능

할 수

있으므로

Form

context

는 적절한 수준에서 상호

fitness

하는 관계가

바람직하고

,

이를 위해서는

context

자체에 대한 명확하고 구체적인 설명이

필요함

.

Good

fit

이란

?

어떤

면에서 완벽하게

만족할 만한

기준을 제공해줄 수는 없으므로

, good fit

에 대한 요구조건은

무한함

.

그러므로

fit

에 대한 기준으로써 잠재적인

misfit

리스트를

이용함

.

(

ex) misfit

의 예

(p.23

)

Slide4

Source of Good Fit

Unselfconscious culture

교육이 규칙

(general principle)

이 명확하지 않은 상황에서 이루어지고

,

노동의 분할이 한정적이기 때문에 어떤 분야에 대한 전문성이 거의 없음

.

Communication

기술이 발달하지 못하여

written records

architectural drawings

이 없고

, intercultural exchange

가 거의 없음

.

다른 문화나 상황에 대한 정보가 거의 없고

,

기록이 부족하므로 같은 경험만 반복적으로 전해지고

,

사람들의 행위는

habit

에 의해 지배됨으로 개인이 창의성을 발휘할 필요가 없고

,

물리적 패턴을 반복하며 익히게 됨

.

따라서 같은

form

이 계속 반복적으로 만들어짐

.

문화의

Form-making

imitation

이나

correction

을 통해

informally

하게 학습되어 지면

unselfconscious culture

로 부름

.

Selfconscious

culture

교육이

formal

하게 이루어 지며

,

teaching

이 명확한 규범을 기반으로 이루어짐

.

사람들은 일반적인 규칙에 따라 빠르게 더 많이 배울 수 있음

.

공식적인

instruction

에 의지하며

,

직접적이고 명확한 원리를 알고

,

지도할 수 있는 형태로의 규칙을 만들 수 있어야 함

.

새로운

purpose

가 항상 새롭게 발생함

.

현대의

context

는 구조적으로 매우 복잡하고 변수 사이의 연계성이 높으므로 복잡성과 연계성에 대한 이해가 필요함

.

문화의

form-making

이 명확한 규칙에 의해

academically

지도된다면

selfconscious

culture

로 부름

.

Slide5

The Natural and Artificial Worlds

Natural science

Knowledge

of things in the world, characteristics, properties, behavior, interaction

.

Goal

is to find pattern in apparent chaos.

The task of science is to show that the wonderful is not incomprehensible, to show how it can be comprehend- but not to destroy

wonder

Artificial

science

:

Knowledge

about artificial objects and phenomena.

Four distinctions between natural and artificial

Artificial things are synthesized by human beings

i

mitate

appearances of nature, but lack some aspects of reality of natural

c

an

be characterized by functions, goals, adaptation and

are often discussed in terms of imperatives along with descriptive.

Slide6

Inner environment vs. outer environment

the real nature of the artifact is the interface.

Interface is considered as a meeting point between “inner environment”, the substance and organization of the artifact itself, and an “outer environment”, the surroundings in which it operates.

The design artifact mediates the demands of the outer environment through a set of operative principles in its inner environment.

Design is concerned with how things to be and the natural sciences are about how things are.

Optimization theory-

in designing, it based on utility theory and statistical decision theory, and it is used as a logical framework for rational choice among given alternatives by deducing which of the available alternatives is the optimum.

Slide7

Choosing satisfactory alternatives

A practical procedure pursuing not the best but better, satisfactory alternatives, satisficing design solutions.

Searching for all alternatives is the computations required astronomical and cannot be carried out by humans and existing or even prospective computers

design as resource allocation

Cost minimization as a design criterion has changed from implicit to explicit consideration & design functions as resource allocation

In Designing

The complex system that might to be constructed in a hierarchy of levels

Design of complex system decompose it into semi-independent components corresponding to its many functional parts.

Mutually rewarding conversation and experiences sharing helped us combat our own multiple-cultures isolation

Slide8

Fuzzy Front End of New Product Development

NPD (New Product Development)

10 to Front End

4 to Development

1.7 Launched

One Market Success

Takes 40-60% of total development time and

determines 80% of total costs

(Smith,

Reinertsen

1995, p. 49, Schmidt 1995

)

Slide9

Product development cycle

Incremental technology improvements

need to be motivated then anticipated andthen acquired. Implementation of new technology next requires research in howto embed the technology into a new model of a product, plan that new model,design, and produce the new product model.In the product - development cycle, the technology implementation stage beginswith research (benchmarking), which then leads to product planning (necessaryand desired features), and then into product design before product production

Frederick Betz, "Managing Technological Innovation: Competitive Advantage From Change",

3

rd

Edition, John Wiley & Sons,

Slide10

What is new product development?

Ulrich and Eppinger (2004:2) define NPD as ‘the set of activities beginning with the perception of a market opportunity and ending in the production, sale, and delivery of a product.’Addressing this larger context, Wheelwright and Clark (1992: Chapter 1) defined NPD as ‘the effective organization and management [of activities] that enable an organization to bring successful products to market, with short development times and low development costs.’Clark and Fujimoto (1991: 7) add that ‘performance results from consistency in total organization and management.’

C. H. Loch and S.

Kavadias

, Handbook of New Product Development Management: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2007.

Slide11

NPD 관련 기존 연구방향

NPD encompasses a large number of topics and challenges in a firm, such as strategy formulation, deployment, resource allocation, and coordinated collaboration among people of different professions and nationalities, and systematic planning, monitoring, and control.In that light, NPD has long been an important topic for several business research disciplines, certainly economics, marketing, organizational theory, operations management, and strategy.

C. H. Loch and S.

Kavadias

, Handbook of New Product Development Management: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2007.

Slide12

Product Development: Past Research, Present Findings, and Future Directions (1995) - Shona L. Brown and Kathleen M. Eisenhardt

Innovation

관련 연구 분류

:

economics-oriented tradition:

patterns of innovation across countries and industrial sectors, evolution of technologies

organizations-oriented tradition:

microlevel

regarding how specific new products are developed ->

이 분야에 집중

Product development

의 중요성

Product development is

critical

because new products are becoming the

nexus of competition

for many firms(e.g., Clark & Fujimoto, 1991)

Product development is thus a

potential source of competitive advantage

for many firms (Brown &

Eisenhardt

, 1995)

Thus, product development is among the

essential processes for success, survival, and renewal of organizations

, particularly for firms in either fast-paced or competitive markets

Slide13

눈문 구성

Product-development literature

three streams

로 분류

①Rational plan, ②communication web, and ③disciplined problem solving

The research within each stream is

theoretically

and

methodologically

similar.

Synthesize these research findings into a model of factors affecting the success of product development

Potential paths for future research

Slide14

Slide15

Product Development as Rational Plan

[pioneering work] Myers and Marquis(1969) and SAPPHO studies (

Rothwell

, 1972;

Rothwell

et al., 1974)

This rational plan perspective emphasizes that successful product development is the result of (a) careful planning of a superior product for an attractive market and (b) the execution of that plan by a competent and well-coordinated cross-functional team that operates with (c) the blessings of senior management.

Simply put, a product that is well planned, implemented, and appropriately supported will be a success.

Slide16

Slide17

a product that is well planned, implemented, and appropriately supported will be a success.

Slide18

Product Development as Rational Plan

[

장점

]

This broad-brush approach leads to an

excellent and a comprehensive overview of the product-development process

, which emphasizes features of the product, internal organization, and the market.

[

단점

]

The findings of many studies read like a "fishing expedition“

-

too many variables and too much factor analysis

. In this research stream, it is not uncommon for a study to report 10 to 20 to even 40 or 50 important findings

the research stream relies heavily on retrospective sense making of complex past processes, usually

by single informants

.

Most important, the research in this stream often presents results

without relying on well-defined constructs

.

Slide19

Product Development As Communication Web

[pioneering work] Allen at MIT (1971, 1977)

early studies highlight the importance of external communication to success. Specifically, these studies observed the presence of "

gatekeepers

"-(i.e., high-performing individuals who also communicated more often overall and with people outside their specialty) (Allen, 1971).

Von

Hippel

(1986) noted how important

communication with key customers

was regarding better product designs.

more effective teams engaged in both

political and task-oriented external communications

,

the relationship among the mean

tenure of a team

,

the degree of external communication

, and

performance

.

but this relationship reversed and performance dropped off after five years

.

Two theoretical theme:

information-processing view, resources dependence view

Slide20

Slide21

Slide22

Product Development As Communication Web

[

장점

]

In contrast to the first perspective, this stream is narrowly focused on one independent variable-communication. Thus, these studies emphasize

depth

, not breadth as in the rational plan, by looking inside the "black box" of the development team

[

단점

]

the principal shortcoming of this perspective is that it is so focused on communication by project team members that

other factors are neglected.

performance measures

frequently are

very subjective

, and so it is difficult to know whether the results would replicate for more objective measures of performance, such as product profitability.

this stream does not distinguish between

different types of products

, such as incremental versus breakthrough versus platform products.

Slide23

Product Development as Disciplined Problem Solving

[pioneering work] studies of Japanese product-development practices in the mid-1980s (e.g., Imai et al., 1985; Quinn, 1985)Successful product development is seen as a balancing act between relatively autonomous problem solving by the project team and the discipline of a heavyweight leader, strong top management, and an overarching product vision.The researchers observed that strong formal ties to suppliers and R&D networks were very important to the product-development process.the authors observed that product development was accelerated by overlapping of development phases and cross-functional teams only if supported by continuous communication among project members.senior management should engage in "subtle control."

Slide24

They(Clark & Fujimoto, 1991) reported that

extensive supplier networks coupled with overlapping product-development phases, communication, and cross-functional groups

(what they term integrated problem solving) improved the performance of development teams.

Iansiti

(1992, 1993) deductively examined the mainframe computer industry. The primary result is that a high

system focus

(i.e., a combination of technical integration, exposure to systems integration, and accumulation of interaction knowledge) predicted both lead time and productivity.

One focuses on factors such as planning and

overlap

that are relevant for more stable products in

mature

settings (e.g., Clark & Fujimoto, 1991;

Iansiti

, 1992), and the other focuses on

experiential

product design that is relevant for less predictable products in

uncertain

settings, such as personal computers, work-stations, and peripherals.

Slide25

Slide26

Slide27

Product Development as Disciplined Problem Solving

[

장점

]

In contrast to the rational plan stream, this stream is

more specific

about the effective organization of work and is more focused on the development process and product concept than on the financial success of the product.

In contrast to the communication web perspective, this stream has a

broader scope

and considers the role of suppliers and senior management in addition to project leaders and teams.

[

단점

]

One is that there is

a lack of political and psychological realism

.

Second, some of the constructs are challenging to comprehend.

For example, subtle control, product vision, and system focus are

vague concepts

.

Finally, there is an extensive reliance on a

Japanese viewpoint

.

Slide28

TOWARDA N INTEGRATIVE MODELO F PRODUCTD EVELOPMENT

Project Team

Project Leader

Senior Management

Suppliers and Customers

Financial Success

Slide29

AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

One research opportunity is to examine the primary links of the model-that is, the links among process performance, effective product, market factors, and financial performance.

A related

research

opportunity is determining the relative importance of these factors.

examine whether process performance, product effectiveness, and munificent markets are actually independent variables.

A second area of research is the organization of work. As was noted, two models have emerged to describe alternative organizations of work.

yet this second model(experiential product development) has received only limited empirical examination.

For

huge and lengthy projects

,

Benghozi

(1990) suggested that

innovation routines

, which include dynamic planning, monitoring, and scheduling projects over time as the environment changes, are needed.

Third, our understanding of how senior managers affect development is incomplete.

Slide30

Strategy, structure and performance in product development: Observations form the auto industry (1991) - Michael A. Cusumano and Kentaro Nobeoka

Japanese firms:

integration of workers and suppliers

, as well as the development and systematic application of

innovative managerial and quality-control techniques

for manufacturing

Slide31

product development as ideally composed of three elements: a

product strategy

that determines task requirements in individual projects;

project structure and processes

(the organization and management systems); and

product as well as project performance

.

Slide32

Slide33

Key variables

Product strategy

product concept, which may include the pricing segment (luxury versus economy) or size of a model, as well as the degree of new or sophisticated technology incorporated into different components

Task requirements is the individual project strategy, which includes project (or task) complexity and project scope.

Structure and process

include the internal organization and management of product development, as well as the utilization of external resources.

Performance

Input measures : engineering hours and “lead time”

Output measures: technical performance, styling or the match of the product with the target customers’ tastes,

Market performance: market or production share and growth in share.

Slide34

Major findings - Product strategy to performance

Product-strategy taxonomy: high-end specialists, volume producers

Japanese manufacturers in general displayed

higher development productivity

in terms of

engineering hours and lead time

.

Japanese firms were

more dependent on suppliers

than the U.S. or European manufacturers -> reduced project scope, the number of in-house engineering hours as well as the amount of time projects required

The

number of model lines

a company offered also correlated closely with its total sales volume.

The specific assumption of this study, although not tested with performance data such as market shares, was that

shorter product life cycles for replacing existing models and adding new models provide an advantage in that faster firms can more quickly and broadly expand their product lines as well as introduce new technology or better meet customer demands as these change over time.

Slide35

Major findings - Product strategy to performance

Slide36

Major findings - Product strategy to performance

replacement rate

: (the total number of new models in this period – the number of new models

that were new product lines rather than replacements for existing models,) /

the number of models the firm had in the base year

expansion rate

: the number of totally new models /

the number of models the firm had in the base year.

Slide37

Major findings - Product strategy to performance

Design for Manufacturability (DFA): asked 19 automobile companies

to rank competitors’ products in terms of ease of assembly.

Slide38

Major findings - Structure and process to performance

Japanese manufacturers, in general, have “heavier”

heavyweight product managers

than their U.S. or European counterparts.

Japanese projects, in addition to their superior performance characteristics in general, had

higher overlapping ratios

.

Japanese projects had more informal and intensive “

information processing

” among various stages that seemed to make this higher degree of overlapping possible and useful.

Japanese auto producers developed

extensive networks of subsidiaries and other suppliers

, and then subcontracted huge amounts of manufacturing work as well as cooperated in technology acquisition and components development

Slide39

Major findings - Structure and process to performance

Slide40

Research critique

Product strategy to performance

Clark and Fujimoto: did not adequately treat

the level of difficulty

Sheriff and

Nobeoka

: do not adequately explain how they arrived at

the weights

used for different types of changes or components

one project per company

does not say much about which company is consistently superior in product development

Krafcik’s

productivity research, centered on assembly operations rather than

components manufacturing

as well as assembly.

there is the issue of economic returns to investments in product development apart from market share

product-development performance and project complexity with changes in sales and profits but uses financial data

at the company level

Slide41

Research critique

Structure and process to performance

no study concentrates on the

supplier coordination process

in product development, and there are even fewer studies on other forms of inter-organizational coordination.

pay more attention to adjusting for differences in vertical integration for development

needs further exploration is

internal project management

mechanisms through which product managers contributed to higher design quality or higher development productivity

multiple project coordination

Have studied only a sample of one project per manufacturer.

Slide42

Technology integration: Managing technological evolution in a complex environment (1995)- Marco Iansiti

This work aims to fill some of the gap between these two bodies of knowledge: existing research on organizational response to technological evolution, and on the management of R&D organizations.

Development performance under discontinuous technical change

By discontinuous, we mean that relationships between product functionality, process requirements and disciplinary expertise change, necessitating a substantial evolution in the knowledge base of the development organization (as in Anderson and

Tushman

, 1990; Henderson and Clark, 1990).

Slide43

연구 모형

In a complex environment characterized

by technological discontinuities, high problem-solving efficiency(and development performance) will be associated with approaches that sample a broad base of disciplinary expertise.

System-focused organizations will be associated with high levels of development performance in environments characterized by discontinuous technological change.

System-focused organizations will

be associated with a broader approach to solving problems than other organizations

-this will involve

information search and processing activities that cross a broader base

of existing disciplinary expertise.

Slide44

Empirical approach

Mainframe processor, 27 projects, 61 problem-solving efforts

Slide45

Empirical results - Problem solving and performance

큰 문제해결 폭은 더 작은

person year(

더 큰 생산성

)

더 빠른 개발속도

개발성과 지표

(

종속변수

): person

year, 개발시간 R&D 조직에서의 지식의 진화와 관련 있음 - disciplinary knowledge bases are linked to each other Integration group members had managed to resolve a difficult problem early by framing it broadly and by making use of a novel combination of context-specific knowledge bases.

P1 성립

-개발성과와 context-specific breadth는 유의-개발성과와 context-independent breadth 유의하지 않음

<P1>

In a complex environment characterized by technological discontinuities,

high problem-solving efficiency(and development performance) will be associated with approaches that sample a broad base of disciplinary expertise.

Slide46

Empirical results - System focus and performance

<P2> System-focused organizations will be associated with high levels of development performance in environments characterized by discontinuous technological change.

System focus

와 개발성과

(person

year, 개발시간)와 유의(-)하게 나타남(0.1%수준)

<표6> The correlation between individual indicators of system focus(Table 2) and development speed and productivity (-)의 유의한 상관성 System focused 프로세스는 개발성과와 연결됨을 보여줌

P2

성립

Slide47

Empirical results - System focus and performance

<P3> System-focused organizations will be associated with a broader approach to solving problems than other organizations-this will involve information search and processing activities that cross a broader base of existing disciplinary expertise.

P3

성립

문제해결의 폭은

system focus

와의 관련성이 유의적으로 있음을 보여줌(0.1%수준)

문제해결의 넓이

(

), system focus,

개발성과간의 논리적 고리

Slide48

Empirical results - Development process and problem-solving approach

System-focused organizations:

do a good job of identifying potential problem areas

early in the project, before concept selection was completed.

Slide49

Discussion

Literature Review Paper

v.s

. Empirical research

Physical Product

Software Product

는 어떻게 다른가

?

NPD

v.s

. NSD(New Service Development)

의 유사점과 차이점은

?

미국에서의 일본 및 한국 차에 대한 품질 이슈를 어떻게

봐야 할 것인가

?

제품의 출시 간격이 시장 성과에 미치는 영향은 무엇인가

?

주기적 구매 제품

(

자동차

,

스마트폰

, …)

비주기적 구매 제품

Slide50

[첨부] Past overviews of NPD research - 1

Slide51

[첨부] Past overviews of NPD research - 2

Slide52

[첨부] Past overviews of NPD research - 3

Slide53

[첨부] Elements of evolutionary problem solving

Shane, Scott, Handbook of Technology and Innovation Management, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2008

Creation of variation

- Guided creation

- Unguided creation

Selection

- Mental selection based on representation

- Selection with no representation

Retention / Inheritance

- Reproducible actions

- Unstable system / noise


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