Motivation and Emotion

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CH. 8. The Subjective Experience of Emotion. Emotion researchers agree that there are a limited number of basic emotions, that all humans experience. These emotions are thought to be biologically determined, the product of evolution. ID: 578242 Download Presentation

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Motivation and Emotion




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Slide1

Motivation and Emotion

CH. 8

Slide2

The Subjective Experience of Emotion

Emotion researchers agree that there are a limited number of basic emotions, that all humans experience

These emotions are thought to be biologically determined, the product of evolution

Slide3

Slide4

There are 3 characteristics commonly associated with motivation:

Activation

Persistence

Intensity

Slide5

Activation

Activation is demonstrated by the initiation or production of behavior

Ex: starting a diet or preparing for a 5K

Slide6

Persistence

Persistence is demonstrated by continued efforts or the determination to accomplish the goal, often in the face of obstacles

Ex: overcoming extreme heat or an injury in preparation for the 5K

Slide7

Intensity

Intensity is seen as the greater vigor of responding that usually accompanies motivated behavior

Ex: preparing with greater intensity, practicing harder and harder in preparation for a 5K

Slide8

Motivation is closely tied to emotional processes and vice versa

We are motivated to experience a particular emotion, such as feeling victorious

The experience of different emotions can motivate us to take action (ex: avoiding dissatisfaction)

Slide9

Motivational Concepts and Theories

Instinct Theories

In the late 1800’s psychology embraced instinct theories to explain motivation

According to instinct theories, people are motivated to engage in certain behaviors because of instinctual behavior patterns

Slide10

Just as animals display action patterns such as migration or mating rituals, humans were also thought to be motivated by instinctual or inborn behavior patterns

Inspired by Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution, early psychologists like William James created lists of human instincts

Slide11

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Drive Theories

Beginning in the 1920’s, instinct theories were replaced by drive theories

Drive theories stated that behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs, such as thirst or hunger

Slide13

Drive theorists, including Robert S. Woodworth and Clark L. Hull believed that drives are triggered by the internal mechanisms of

homeostasis

The human body automatically tries to maintain a steady state, which is what homeostasis means

Slide14

According to drive theorists, when an internal imbalance is detected by homeostatic mechanisms, a

drive

to restore balance is produced

Ex: after you have not eaten anything for several hours, this unmet biological need creates a

drive state

– hunger – that motivates your behavior

Slide15

Incentive Motivation

Building on the drive theories, incentive theories emerged in the 1940’s and 1950’s

Incentive theories proposed that behavior is motivated by the “pull” of external goals, such as rewards, money, or recognition

Slide16

Incentive theories drew heavily from well-established learning principles, such as reinforcement, and the work of influential learning theorists such as Pavlov, Watson, Skinner and

Tolman

Tolman

stressed the importance of cognitive factors in learning and motivation, especially the

expectation

that a particular behavior will lead to a particular goal

Slide17

Arousal Theory

Arousal Theory is based on the observation that people find both very high levels of arousal and very low levels of arousal unpleasant

When arousal is too low, we experience boredom and become motivated to

increase

arousal by seeking out stimulating experiences

Slide18

When arousal is too high, we seek to

reduce

arousal in a less stimulating environment

Thus, people are motivated to maintain an

optimal

level of arousal, one that is neither too high or too low

Slide19

Humanistic Theory

In the late 1950’s, humanistic theories of motivation were introduced by psychologists

Carl Rogers

and

Abraham Maslow

Humanistic theories emphasized psychological and cognitive components in human emotion

Slide20

According to the humanistic perspective, people are motivated to realize their highest personal potential

Humanistic psychologists acknowledged that the motivation to achieve personal potential was inborn to a degree, however they believed that the environment was also an important factor (people need a positive and supportive environment to reach their full potential)

Slide21

Psychological Needs as Motivators

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Abraham Maslow believed that people are innately motivated to satisfy a progression of needs, beginning with the most basic physiological needs

Once the needs at a particular level are satisfied, the individual is motivated to satisfy the needs at the next level, steadily progressing upward

Slide22

The ultimate goal is self-actualization, the realization of personal potential

Slide23

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Deci and Ryan’s Self-Determination Theory

To realize optimal psychological functioning and growth throughout the lifespan, Ryan and

Deci

believe that three innate and universal psychological needs must be met :

Slide26

Autonomy:

the need to determine, control, and organize one’s own behavior and goals so that they are in harmony with one’s own interests and values

Competence:

the need to effectively learn and master appropriately challenging tasks

Relatedness:

the need to feel attached to others and experience a sense of belongingness, security and intimacy

Slide27

How does a person satisfy the needs for

autonomy, competence

and

relatedness

?

In a supportive environment, an individual will pursue interests, goals and relationships that satisfy these psychological needs

In turn this enhances the person’s psychological growth and

intrinsic motivation

Slide28

Intrinsic Motivation

is the desire to engage in tasks that the person finds inherently satisfying ,enjoyable, or challenging

Extrinsic Motivation

consists of external influences on behavior, such as rewards, social evaluations, rules and responsibilities

Slide29

According to Ryan and

Deci

, the person who has satisfied the needs for

competence,

autonomy

and

relatedness

internalizes and integrates different external motivators as part of his/her identity

The person incorporates societal expectations, rules, and regulations as values or rules that he or she personally endorses

Slide30

Competence and Achievement Motivation

Competence Motivation

occurs when you strive to use your cognitive, social and behavioral skills to be capable and exercise control in a situation

A step beyond competence motivation is

Achievement Motivation –

the drive to excel, succeed or outperform others at some task

Slide31

In the 1930’s, Henry Murray identified 20 fundamental human needs or motives, including achievement motivation

Murray also developed a test to measure human motives, called the

Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT)

Slide32

The TAT consists of a series of ambiguous pictures. The person being tested is asked to make up a story about each picture

The story is then coded for different motivational themes, including achievement

Slide33

The Subjective Experience of Emotion

Emotion researchers agree that there are a limited number of basic emotions, that all humans experience

These emotions are thought to be biologically determined, the product of evolution

Slide34

Slide35

The Neuroscience of Emotion

When you are threatened, the

sympathetic nervous system

triggers the

fight or flight response,

a rapidly occurring series of automatic physical reactions

Breathing and heart rate accelerate, blood pressure rises, you perspire, your mouth goes dry, pupils dilate, digestion stops

Slide36

Sympathetic nervous system is also activated by intense emotions such as excitement, love or joy

Example: riding a roller coaster excited the SNS

There are different patterns of physiological arousal for different emotions

Slide37

Ex: fear, anger and sadness are all associated with increased heart rate

Research conducted by

Levenson

. He believed that these differing patterns of SNS activation are universal, reflecting biological responses to the basic emotions

Slide38

The Expression of Emotion

The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (

written by Charles Darwin

)

He said that human emotional expressions are innate and culturally universal

Humans exhibit the greatest range of facial expressions

Slide39

Psychologist Paul

Ekman

estimates that the human face is capable of creating more than 7,000 different expressions

He found that facial expressions for the basic emotions are probably innate and are hard-wired in the brain

Also found that facial expressions are universal across different cultures

Slide40

Theories of Emotion

James-Lange Theory of Emotion

Based on theories from William James and Carl Lange

States that emotion follows this sequence: 1. we perceive a stimulus, 2. physiological and behavioral changes occur, 3. we experience a particular emotion

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