Learning Classical Conditioning - PowerPoint Presentation

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Learning Classical Conditioning
Learning Classical Conditioning

Learning Classical Conditioning - Description


Conditioning Learning Happens through the pairing of stimuli Stimulus something that produces a reaction Response a person or animals reaction Ivan Pavlov Dogs salivate when they see food like meat ID: 642528 Download Presentation

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reinforcement food behavior conditioning food reinforcement conditioning behavior response bell stimulus extinction time partial dogs people salivate operant interval

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Slide1

LearningSlide2

Classical Conditioning

Conditioning = Learning

Happens through the pairing of stimuli

Stimulus: something that produces a reaction

Response: a person or animal’s reactionSlide3

Ivan Pavlov

Dogs salivate when they see food, like meat

Dogs salivate to the clinking of food trays

Dogs salivate when Pavlov’s assistant enters

Can they learn to salivate to something not related to the food?Slide4
Slide5
Slide6

Classical Conditioning

Unconditioned stimulus

US

Causes a response automatically, not learned

Unconditioned response

UR

Automatic response

Conditioned stimulus

CS

a stimulus that was previously neutral or meaningless that now elicits a response

Conditioned response

CR

Learned response to conditioned stimulusSlide7

Example

Pavlov has dogs in his laboratory. When he rings a bell, they do not respond. When Pavlov brings food in to feed them, they salivate when they see food. Pavlov begins to ring a bell before he gives the food to the dogs. After a week, Pavlov rings the bell, but does not give the dogs food. The dogs salivate.Slide8
Slide9

Classical Conditioning

Aids in survival of an animal

This smell = food

This sound = food

This sound = danger

etc… (how they get you in horror films!)Slide10

Taste Aversions

A learned avoidance of a food

The food could be unhealthy, poisonous

Dan eats a whole gallon of mint chocolate chip ice cream and feels nauseated. Dan doesn’t want to eat mint chocolate chip ice cream anymore.

What is the US, UR, CS, CR?

Even though Dan knows it was the serving size, not the ice cream itself, he still cannot surpass the nauseated feeling.

Chemo?Slide11
Slide12

Extinction

When the CS is disconnected from the US

The bell is no longer followed by food, the dog learns the bell is now meaningless

Car alarms, etc.Slide13

Spontaneous Recovery

: After extinction, the dogs randomly salivate to the sound of the bell, but not as strong (old song take you back?)

Generalization:

the act of responding the same way to a stimuli that is similar, but not the same. e.g. Dan cannot eat ANY flavor of ice cream

Discrimination:

the act of responding differently to stimuli that are not similar to each other. e.g. Dan can eat pudding. Slide14

Poor Little Albert…Slide15

Applications for Classical Conditioning

Methods to overcoming fear, e.g. heights, snakes, spiders, tight spaces

Flooding:

a person is exposed to the harmless stimulus until fear responses to that stimulus are extinguished. e.g. being put (locked) in a room with a bunch of harmless snakes

Systematic Desensitization:

people are taught relaxation techniques and then gradually introduced to their fears. e.g. people are taught to relax when seeing an image of a snake, then from far away, then up close, etc.Slide16

Counter conditioning:

a pleasant stimulus is paired with an unpleasant one

e.g. A little boy is scared of a white rat. His parents give him a cookie every time they bring the rat closer to him. The pleasure of eating the treat canceled out his fear.Slide17

Bell-and-Pad Method for Bed-Wetting

Teaches children to wake up in response to bladder tension

The child sleeps on a pad, when they begin to urinate, the water content of the urine triggers a bell, and the ringing wakes the child up

Unlike Pavlov’s experiment, what is the US & UR?

People instinctively wake up when they hear loud noisesSlide18

Because of repeated pairings, a stimulus that precedes the bell becomes associated with the bell

B

ladder tension becomes CS

Waking up to the tension becomes CRSlide19

Conditioned Drug Tolerance

Siegel et al. (1982)i

njected rats with heroin in same environment.

Every few sessions, the dose was increased.

Those rats, in addition to a control group that had never received heroin, were then injected either in a

novel environment

or in that

same environment

.

Control Group

: 96% died

Novel Environment

: 64% died

Same Environment

: 32% died

Conclusion: drug tolerance is partially explained by classical conditioning.Slide20

Operant ConditioningSlide21

Another type of learning…

Operant Conditioning:

people and animals learn to do certain things- and not to do others- because of the results of what they do.

Consequences of their actions

e.g. If you study, you get a good grade

Organisms learn to engage in behavior that results in

desirable consequences

and avoid behaviors that have

negative consequences

like pain or failureSlide22

Operant Conditioning

Allows individuals to use the consequence of their own behavior to seek out desired objects and avoid danger.

All situations in which operant conditioning occurs include elements of the Pavlovian conditioning procedure.Slide23

B.F. Skinner

Skinner BoxSlide24

Classic Skinner Experiment

The rat in the box is deprived of food (put on a diet). When the lever is pressed, food falls into the box in a tray. The rat will search around the box, doing random “rat like” behaviors, and accidently press the lever. Food will appear. The rat will more frequently, and deliberately, press the lever. The food “

reinforces

” the behavior of pressing the lever.Slide25

From the subject’s perspective

Operant conditioning is a problem-solving task in which subjects must figure out how to get what they want.

“Trial-and-error” learning is not random.Slide26

Which kind of conditioning is it?

Positive

means to present or add something.

Negative

means to take something away.

Reinforcement

means behavior goes up.

Punishment

means behavior goes down.Slide27

Before Behavior After Rate

No food Press Lever Food

No attention cries attention

Shock Pull chain no shock

Crying Pick up baby no cryingSlide28

Before Behavior After Rate

No pain says bad word spanking

No water claws couch water

Has toy car hits sister no toy car

Friends, toys starts fight time-outSlide29

1.

Bill

frequently talks during class. His teacher, Mrs. Smith, scolds him when he does this, and as a result, he eventually stops.

2. A week ago, Lisa could not get to sleep because her neighbors upstairs were playing loud music. She pounded on the ceiling with a broomstick, and they turned it down. Now whenever they play loud music, Lisa immediately grabs the broom and pounds on the ceiling. Slide30

3

. Pam recently had a bad headache. She took some Excedrin, and it went away. Now she takes Excedrin every time she gets a headache.

4. Five-year-old Jaime left his toy cars all over the living room floor, so his mother took them away. Now when he plays with toys in the living room, he is careful not to leave them out. Slide31

5. Matt brings home his report card, and his parents decide to pay him $10 for every A. The next time he brings a report card home, he gets straight A’s

.

6. 10-year old Robbie frequently talks during math class. His instructor yells at him every time he does this, but Robbie just keeps disrupting class more and more often.Slide32

Is it

positive or

negative

reinforcement?Slide33
Slide34

Types of R

einforcers

Primary

reinforcers

function as

reinforcers

with little or no

experience

required. e.g. food, water, warmth, sex

Secondary (Conditioned)

reinforcers

derive their ability to serve as

reinforcers

as a result of experience, specifically as the result

of

a Pavlovian conditioning procedure.

e.g. money, attention, social approval, moneySlide35

Hero Rats!Slide36

Partial Reinforcement

So far most of the examples of operant conditioning we have discussed have involved

continuous reinforcement.

However, often we must perform a behavior repeatedly in order to earn the reinforcer; this is called

partial reinforcement.Slide37

Interval vs. Ratio Schedules

Fixed Interval:

Set amount of

time

must elapse between reinforcement

Variable Interval:

Random amounts

of

time

elapses

between reinforcement

Fixed Ratio:

Set number of the desired behavior/response before reinforcement

Variable Ratio:

Randomized number

of the desired

behavior/responses

before reinforcement Slide38

Examples

Fixed Interval:

Farmers get a crop every spring, a one-year interval (probably won’t check on them until close to spring)

Variable Interval:

Pop quizzes, when will they be?!

Fixed Ratio:

Punch cards, buy 10 coffees, get 1 FREE!

Variable Ratio:

Fishing & Gambling… just one more cast!Slide39

Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect (PREE)

Behaviors reinforced on a partial schedule of reinforcement

persist much longer in extinction

than those that were continually reinforced.

Slide40

Why does the partial reinforcement extinction effect

(PREE) occur?

Discriminability:

Frustration:

It is easier to detect the change from

continuous reinforcement to

extinction

than

from

partial

reinforcement

to extinction.

Extinction produces frustration.

Frustration has two properties—It energizes

ongoing behavior

and

it can produce competing

behavior.

Individuals on partial reinforcement learn to

persist in presence of

nonreinforcement

;

i

ndividuals on continuous reinforcement do not.

Slide41

PREE (continued)

Unfortunately, many of the behaviors we don’t reinforce every time in real life are those we don’t want to encourage

!

However, partial reinforcement

makes

them MORE resistant to

extinction

(so they never stop).Slide42

Latent Learning

“Cognitive Map”

Chances are,

no one has reinforced

your creation of a mental picture of your schools layout; you have

simply created it

on your own

You can learn things without reinforcement

Exploring, knowledge of routes are hidden until you need it and are rewarded Slide43

Observational Learning

Albert Bandura &

Bobo

We acquire knowledge and skills by

observing and imitating others

Money see, Monkey do

Do as I say, not as I do

Aggression is a common example

Study after study, people who are exposed to violence in the media behave more aggressively than people who are notSlide44

Violence

Repetition of stimuli

“Desensitization”

The violent stimuli does not cause the same emotional response anymore

Less likely to condemn violence and restrain their own urges

Can be used to prevent it

Flaws: the people who CHOOSE, not all are

Shom More....
By: natalia-silvester
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Type: Public

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