Workplace Violence Prevention

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Workplace Violence Prevention - Description

Compiled by . Ce-Classes.com. Learning Objectives. After completing this course, participants will:. Identify . aggressive behavior and anger . triggers.. Describe techniques for managing anger.. Identify . ID: 278250 Download Presentation

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Workplace Violence Prevention




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Presentations text content in Workplace Violence Prevention

Slide1

Workplace Violence Prevention

Compiled by

Ce-Classes.com

Slide2

Learning Objectives

After completing this course, participants will:

Identify

aggressive behavior and anger

triggers.

Describe techniques for managing anger.

Identify

the warning signs of workplace aggression and de-escalation techniques.

Slide3

Course Description

This

course reviews the incidence, causes and interventions to reduce workplace violence. The course begins with a theoretical overview of anger and aggression while considering its impact within the work place. The course content examines a spectrum of destructive aggressive behaviors, warning signs of violence, and anger triggers. Communication skills and de-escalation techniques are also reviewed in detail as interventions for anger and potential violence in the workplace. The content of this course is designed to help employees learn how to manage their own anger and how to deal with others who are angry in an effort to reduce the potential for workplace violence.

Slide4

Anger arises and aggression occurs

According to Novaco, anger is simply a subjective but normal emotional state that is agitated by some environmental occurrence (as cited by Hollin). According to Glomb, Steel and Arvey, aggression is a behavioral manifestation of feeling angry.

(

Berkowitz

)

Slide5

Anger and Violence

Emotions are a factor of the human condition, whether felt or faced.

Varied human emotions can be exhibited in a positive or negative manner including anger.

Slide6

Anger and Violence

According to

Novaco

, anger is simply a subjective but normal emotional state that is agitated by some environmental occurrence (as cited by

Hollin

).

Slide7

Anger and Violence

The legitimate emotional state of anger is significantly related to aggression because aggression is a behavioral manifestation of feeling angry.

(

Glomb

, Steel, &

Arvey

)

Slide8

Anger and Violence

Berkowitz made an interesting point,

“Anger arises and aggression occurs”.

Slide9

Anger and Violence

According to Neuman and Baron, workplace aggression is defined as “efforts by an individual to harm others with whom they work, or have worked, or the organizations in which they are presently or where presently employed”

(

Glomb

, Steel, &

Arvey

).

Slide10

Anger and Violence

For the purposes of this training we will focus on the implications of the aggressive behavior on an interpersonal level, such as colleague to colleague or towards organizational outsiders.

(

Glomb

, Steel, &

Arvey

).

Slide11

Workplace Violence

What is critical to understand about specifying the difference in definition between aggression and workplace aggression is the perspective of intentionality of the harm. For example, yelling at a coworker because he/ she cannot hear you over an outside car alarm maybe aggressive behavior but not an aggressive intentional act. Yelling at a coworker because you are angry they embarrassed you in a meeting; shows intent to harm another

(

Glomb

, Steel, &

Arvey

).

Slide12

Spectrum of Organizational Anger and Aggression

The emotional state of anger is neither good nor bad.Thus, anger can be constructive or destructive. The problem comes about when we don’t know how to properly handle or when we lose control of our own emotions.

(

Glomb

, Steel, &

Arvey

; Peacock)

Slide13

Spectrum of Organizational Anger and Aggression

Constructive

Opening lines of communication with management for future development

Channeling your anger into positive motivation energy towards your work

Slide14

Spectrum of Organizational Anger and Aggression

Destructive

Not relaying an important message from the supervisor.

Discontinue “going the extra mile”.

Yelling

at a coworker.

Spreading false rumors about a coworker.

Destroying property.

Physical harm to a coworker or customer.

Slide15

Spectrum of Workplace Aggression

(

Martinko, Douglas, &

Harvey;

Nuckols

).

Slide16

Workplace Aggression

Workplace aggression is not always about physical violence or homicides, although it does receive the most attention in the media and in research.

(LeBlanc &

Kelloway

)

Slide17

Workplace Aggression

Although the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics indicates homicides to be the second leading cause of workplace death, only 4-7% of these homicides are committed by fellow colleagues.

(LeBlanc &

Kelloway

)

Slide18

Workplace Aggression

This extreme level of workplace aggression can be reduced by creating a prevention plan and simply being aware of our colleagues and organizational aggression levels.

(LeBlanc &

Kelloway

).

Slide19

Workplace Aggression

First, take all threats seriously and inform management immediately. Better safe than sorry!

Slide20

Workplace Aggression

Prepare for "what if" situations by understanding company procedures and mental reflection.

Slide21

Workplace Aggression

Your organization should have an action plan in case these extreme levels of aggression should occur, be proactive and know the plan or voice your concern constructively to management that the

organization

should develop and implement

a prevention plan

.

Slide22

Workplace Aggression

Also, you should internally prepare for this hypothetical event so you can remain calm and not be caught off guard.

Slide23

Workplace Aggression

Be vigilant of aggressive behavior and warning signs. At this point you might be asking yourself…

So how do we as proactive employees become more aware?

Slide24

Create a prevention plan and be aware of aggression levels.

Slide25

Spotting The Warning Signs

Being aware of our surroundings at work and watching out for changes in coworkers level of aggressive behavior can help reduce increases in the continuum.

Slide26

Spotting The Warning Signs

Stage one warning signs include:Unusual behavior changes Uncooperative with direct supervisor on a regular basis . Argues with coworkers constantly Spreads gossip and rumors deliberately to harm others. Excessively hostile toward customers or coworkers. Irritability and anxiety escalates.

Wood

Holes Oceanographic Institution

prevention plan for workplace violence

Slide27

Spotting The Warning Signs

Stage two warning signs include:Writes violent or sexual notes to other employees or management. Verbalizes desires to harm coworkers or employer. Sabotages equipment or steals property. Continuously disregards company policies and procedures. Levels of arguments or altercations increase with all personnel . Noted decrease in interest and confidence in work .

Wood

Holes Oceanographic Institution

prevention plan for workplace violence

Slide28

Spotting The Warning Signs

Stage three identifies when anger intensifies resulting in:Depression or withdrawal. Property destruction . Physical fighting. Suicidal threats. Use of weapons to harm others.

Wood

Holes Oceanographic Institution

prevention plan for workplace violence

Slide29

Anger Styles: Classifying Aggressive Behavior

Now that we understand the continuum of aggressive behavior in the workplace and how to spot the warning signs, let us shift our attention to examine the three main anger styles: avoiders, exploders, and assertors.

Slide30

Classifying Aggressive Behavior

Avoiders demonstrate a passive aggressive style by suppressing their anger internally. They generally blame themselves and feel that showing anger overtly will cause others to reject them.

(

Peacock)

Slide31

Classifying Aggressive Behavior

Avoiders typically also feel resentment and lower self-esteem or engage in passive aggressive behavior. For instance, deleting a coworker’s project whom made you angry earlier in the day without them knowing it was you; thus an indirect aggressive act. However, this solved nothing which usually leads to an avoiding becoming an exploder.

(

Peacock)

Slide32

Classifying Aggressive Behavior

Exploders express their aggression in an outright verbal or physical manner. They are generally enraged easily and are overly sensitive to criticism. Although expressing their anger usually makes them feel better, exploders end up hurting others and aggressive behavior continues to escalate because they do not solve the problem.

(

Peacock)

Slide33

Classifying Aggressive Behavior

Without intervention avoiders and exploders may utilize addictive substances, harm themselves, or commit criminal violent acts.

(

Peacock)

Slide34

Classifying Aggressive Behavior

On the other hand, assertors employ techniques to manage anger and keep cool when angry feelings starts to bubble. They effectively communicate to explain why they are angry and resolve the anger trigger.

(

Peacock)

Slide35

Anger Styles

Slide36

Anger Triggers

Everyone is angered by different buttons: There are many cultural and gender differences in anger triggers.

(

Peacock

;

Glomb

, Steel, &

Arvey

;

Rokach

;

Martinko, Douglas, &

Harvey).

Slide37

Anger Triggers

Anger triggers include but are not limited to: frustrations, annoyances, causal-reasoning style, adverse work conditions, rigid rules and procedures, aggressive organizational cultures, mistreatments or injustices, and physical provocation.

(

Peacock;

Glomb

, Steel, &

Arvey

;

Rokach

;

Martinko, Douglas, &

Harvey).

Slide38

Anger Triggers

This paradigm demonstrates that an individual’s funneling process of anger triggers indicates their relationship towards reacting aggressively and provides an additional dynamic to guide proactive measures to reduce workplace aggression.

(

Peacock;

Glomb

, Steel, &

Arvey

;

Rokach

;

Martinko, Douglas, &

Harvey).

Slide39

Anger Triggers

Although our buttons get pushed, we need to implement a strategy to efficiently handle the anger in a constructive manner consequently implementing an assertive anger style.

(

Peacock;

Glomb

, Steel, &

Arvey

;

Rokach

;

Martinko, Douglas, &

Harvey)

Slide40

Anger Styles

Since we are all going to experience anger, learning our anger triggers as well as aggression controlling techniques will help us become better at managing our behavior and maintaining an assertor anger style.

(

Peacock)

Slide41

Reasoning Styles

Causal-reasoning styles deals with locus of control theory which states that people attribute successes and failures in different ways.

(

Peacock;

Glomb

, Steel, &

Arvey

;

Rokach

;

Martinko, Douglas, &

Harvey).

Slide42

Reasoning Styles

Internalists believe that their efforts where direct result of the outcome while externalists believe that others are to blame or it was destiny that caused them to succeed or fail.

(

Peacock;

Glomb

, Steel, &

Arvey

;

Rokach

;

Martinko, Douglas, &

Harvey).

Slide43

Reasoning Styles

Attribution theory is closely related to the concept of locus of control but centers on the behaviors and emotions resulting in their attribution patterns.

(

Peacock;

Glomb

, Steel, &

Arvey

;

Rokach

;

Martinko, Douglas, &

Harvey).

Slide44

Reasoning Styles

These theories support the idea of a hostile attribution style in which associates within the workforce of predisposed toward aggressive behavior.

(

Peacock;

Glomb

, Steel, &

Arvey

;

Rokach

;

Martinko, Douglas, &

Harvey).

Slide45

Anger Triggers

Frustrations come about when something we expected does not happen creating an inability to reach a goal. This many lower the person’s self-esteem leading to an avoider’s maladaptive methods of handling anger.

(Peacock;

Glomb

, Steel, &

Arvey

;

Rokach

;

Martinko

, Douglas, & Harvey).

Slide46

Anger Triggers

Annoyances are the everyday things that agitate us: you step in gum, someone cuts you off while driving home, or you are continuously being interrupted during a meeting.

(Peacock;

Glomb

, Steel, &

Arvey

;

Rokach

;

Martinko

, Douglas, & Harvey).

Slide47

Anger Triggers

Mistreatments or injustices include things like: ridicule, name-calling, being blamed for something you did not do, or a private personal matter has been spread around the office.

(Peacock;

Glomb

, Steel, &

Arvey

;

Rokach

;

Martinko

, Douglas, & Harvey

).

Slide48

Anger Triggers

Adverse work conditions encompass environmental stressors include triggers like overcrowding, extreme temperatures, noise or threats to safety. Here the same rule of thumb for handling rigid rules can be utilized to minimize the trigger.

(Peacock;

Glomb

, Steel, &

Arvey

;

Rokach

;

Martinko

, Douglas, & Harvey).

Slide49

Anger Triggers

And obviously, physical provocation triggers anger by providing an eminent fear of physical harm triggering a fight or flight response.

(Peacock;

Glomb

, Steel, &

Arvey

;

Rokach

;

Martinko

, Douglas, & Harvey).

Slide50

How to Manage Your Anger

From Furious To Calm, Cool and CollectedKnow your triggers and avoid if possibleRestructure your thinkingUse relaxation methodsSTEP BACK techniqueCommunicationProblem solving techniques

(

Peacock;

Feindler

&

Starr)

Slide51

How to Manage Your Anger

The objective is to reduce problems in created by the intentionality of dysfunctional workplace aggression by knowing your anger trigger and implementing strategies to calm you down.

(

Peacock;

Feindler

&

Starr)

Slide52

How to Manage Your Anger

Knowing how to manage your anger and consequently control your aggressive behavior within the workplace will not only make the workplace more enjoyable - it will make you a more effective person and employee.

(

Peacock;

Feindler

&

Starr)

Slide53

How to Manage Your Anger

However, it is also important to remember that not every problem can be solved.

(

Peacock;

Feindler

&

Starr)

Slide54

How to Manage Your Anger

Some problems are detrimental and beyond the scope of this training program but focusing on handling the emotion by using the varied techniques mentioned will help you be effective whenever possible.

(

Peacock;

Feindler

&

Starr)

Slide55

How to Manage Your Anger

Chronic anger can become uncontrollable rage.This requires more than implementing these techniques.Professional counseling is recommended if you have chronic anger

(

Peacock;

Feindler

&

Starr)

Slide56

Know Your Triggers

First, pay attention to your body’s physiological changes so you can be aware of when you are becoming angry. Such signal include: pounding heart, tight muscles, nervous stomach, and raising your voice. Admitting you are angry is critical.

(

Peacock)

Slide57

Know Your Triggers

Knowing your triggers and avoiding them can help reduce aggressive behavior.

(

Peacock)

Slide58

Managing Anger

Restructure your thinkingThere are 3 main types of irrational thinking:Overgeneralization/Over dramatizationMind ReadingLabeling

(

Peacock)

Slide59

Managing Anger

Relaxation techniques can help you reduce the intensity of your anger to a range that is under control or removed.

(

Peacock)

Slide60

Managing Anger

Techniques like taking a few deep breaths, counting to ten backwards, calming visualizationsrepeating a positive mantrayoga exercises can reduce frustration and lower your agitating physiological responses.

(

Peacock)

Slide61

Managing Anger

STEP BACK TechniqueS - see the problem from the others person’s point of view.T - take in what your counterpart is saying.E - examine the situation. P - pay attention to what is happening to your body.

(

Peacock)

Slide62

Managing Anger

STEP BACK TechniqueB - blend words of respect and friendship into your interactions with coworkers.A - acknowledge when you are beginning to feel anger.C - consider why you are angry.K - keep focused in regards to the present and not the past experiences or grudges.

(

Peacock)

Slide63

Good Communication

Communication Skills are tools that help you effectively handle the many different problems you face.

Slide64

Managing Anger

Using good communication skills is key to managing anger and avoiding aggressive behaviors

Slide65

Good Communication

Involves

Maintaining or Enhancing Self-Esteem

Focusing on Specific Behavior and Outcomes

Using Reinforcement Techniques

Listening Effectively

Asking for Feedback

Setting Goals and Follow-Up Dates

Slide66

Good Communication

Although effective communication results in maximized productivity it can also avoid errors that are attributed to faulty

communication

.

Slide67

Good Communication

Can also:

Maximize individual and team productivity

Strengthen relationships between departments

Improve overall job performance

Move average employees towards excellence

Slide68

Good Communication

Focuses on specific behaviors

A behavior is something you can see a person do or hear

a person say.

Slide69

Good Communication

You should concentrate on a specific action

and a

void focusing on attitude or personality.

This reduces the risk of defensive reactions and hostile feelings.

Slide70

Good Communication

E

xplaining the outcome of the behavior helps others understand what behaviors you want more or less of and strengthens the impact of and effectiveness of your communication.

Slide71

Effective Listening Skills

Listening is a skill that involves hearing and showing others that you understand rather then just telling them.

 

Slide72

Effective Listening Skills

Listening involves both the ear and the brain; making it an active process that requires you to complete action steps to listen and particularly to listen EFFECTIVELY.

Slide73

Effective Listening Skills

The true challenge of listening is not to add your own approval or opinion.

Reflecting what you hear back to someone encourages more discussion and allows you to gather more information.

Slide74

Effective Listening Skills

Be aware of WHAT you say and HOW you say it!

Slide75

Effective Listening Skills

Listening is a tool that allows you to:

Ensure your understanding of information.

Build trust with others.

Give and get information through the use of questions.

Control a conversation to keep it on track.

 

Slide76

Effective Listening Skills

1.

Acknowledging is the simplest and quickest way of listening.

It means responding in a way that shows you hear what’s being said and want the other person to say more.

Slide77

Effective Listening Skills

2.

Paraphrasing

involves using your own words to summarize what you think you heard.

Slide78

Effective Listening Skills

3.

Active Listening is the third and most sophisticated level of listening

. This listening skill identifies what the other person is feeling during a conversation or the content of a statement including the emotions involved.

Slide79

Effective Listening Skills

Active listening is used in situations where strong emotions are involved.

You diffuse the emotion so that of you can use logic, resolve the issue, and stay on track.

Slide80

Effective Listening Skills

Until the negative emotion is gone, no progress can be made and your efforts will be in vain or misdirected.

Slide81

Dealing Successfully with Angry People

Try to stay calm and keep controlAcknowledge that the other person is angryUse de-escalation techniquesListen without interruptingTry to understand the situationEmphasize that you are trying to help

(

Emanuele

)

Slide82

Dealing Successfully with Angry People

We not only deal with handling anger internally but we also need to know how to successfully manager external sources of anger whether between coworker to coworker or when working with an organizational outsider.

(

Emanuele

)

Slide83

Dealing Successfully with Angry People

Remaining calm is the first step, if you get agitated that situation will only escalate further and you will lose control. Keep in mind that the other person is angry not you. Do not allow their emotional anger state to infect you.

(

Emanuele

)

Slide84

Dealing Successfully with Angry People

Use de-de-escalation and listening skill for a successful interaction, by listening without interrupting which will allow you to gain perspective on the other angry person’s point of view.

(

Emanuele

)

Slide85

Listening Is Critical

Listening is critical because it is the most important element for de-escalating a situation.

(Vanderbilt University Medical Center Universal Behavioral Precautions Techniques of Verbal De-escalation)

Slide86

Listening Is Critical

You should:Listen to the client’s or coworker’s frustration.Empathize with their “dilemma”.

(Vanderbilt University Medical Center Universal Behavioral Precautions Techniques of Verbal De-escalation)

Slide87

Listening Is Critical

You should:Understand how they perceive the situation.Find out what they want that they are not getting?Address their concerns in a polite and efficient manner.

(Vanderbilt University Medical Center Universal Behavioral Precautions Techniques of Verbal De-escalation)

Slide88

Defusing a Situation

Simply listening will allow the angry person to vent so they can release their frustration to an empathetic person who cares about their situation. Listening attentively by using non verbal and verbal acknowledgement responses.

(Vanderbilt University Medical Center Universal Behavioral Precautions Techniques of Verbal De-escalation)

Slide89

Defusing a Situation

Although, the angry person is venting ensure that you are in control of the situation so it does not escalate.

(

Ohbuchi

,

Agarie

, &

Kameda)

Slide90

Defusing a Situation

Employing the active listening skills will allow you to remove the emotion, in this case anger.

(

Ohbuchi

,

Agarie

, &

Kameda)

Slide91

Defusing a Situation

Once the anger is reduced the problem solving can begin and the conversation can become more constructive.

(

Ohbuchi

,

Agarie

, &

Kameda)

Slide92

Defusing a Situation

Remember the this three step process: Accept what they say without opinionGet feedback for content and emotionStop for their responses

(

Ohbuchi

,

Agarie

, &

Kameda)

Slide93

Defusing a Situation

In very difficult situations, you many need to actively listen several times to reflect the emotion accurately and build understanding.

(

Ohbuchi

,

Agarie

, &

Kameda)

Slide94

Defusing a Situation

Apologizing is a step that we forget to utilize because we are usually not to blame for the person’s angry state.

(

Ohbuchi

,

Agarie

, &

Kameda)

Slide95

Defusing a Situation

Apologizing is actually a form of defense impression management and when completed successfully reduces the potential for aggressive behavior significantly.

(

Ohbuchi

,

Agarie

, &

Kameda)

Slide96

Defusing a Situation

You can obtain the same result if you sincerely apologize for the unjust situation they are perceiving without taking on the blame.

(

Ohbuchi

,

Agarie

, &

Kameda)

Slide97

Defusing a Situation

Using statements like:“I'm so sorry you having such an bad day" "I'm sorry the situation has you so frustrated.““I am sorry that this has happened to you”

(

Ohbuchi

,

Agarie

, &

Kameda)

Slide98

Defusing a Situation

Being aware of what is occurring is extremely important. Note when situation first escalates:Louder voiceFidgeting or Aggressive gestures

Vanderbilt

University Medical Center Universal Behavioral Precautions Techniques of Verbal

De-escalation

Slide99

Defusing a Situation

Avoid arguing or defending previous actions.Avoid threatening body language (don’t stand with arms crossed).

Vanderbilt

University Medical Center Universal Behavioral Precautions Techniques of Verbal

De-escalation

Slide100

Defusing a Situation

Calmly but firmly outline limits of the setting.If the situation continues to escalate, seek help from othersManagement should be contacted and may need to intervene.

Vanderbilt

University Medical Center Universal Behavioral Precautions Techniques of Verbal

De-escalation

Slide101

References

Berkowitz, L. (1990). On the formation and regulation of anger and aggression.

American Psychologist, 45 (4),

494-503.  

Emanuele

, P. Coping with Aggression. New York, NY: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc.

Feindler

, E.L. and Starr, K.E. (2003). From steaming mad to staying cool: A constructive approach to anger management.

Reclaiming Children and Youth, 12 (3),

158-160.

Glomb

, T.M., Steel, P D.G., and

Arvey

, R.D. (2002). Office sneers, snipes, and stabs wounds: Antecedents, consequences, and implications of workplace violence and aggression. In R.G. Lord, R.L.

Klimoski

, and R.

Kanfer

(Eds.) Emotions In The Workplace. San Francisco, CA:

Jossey

-Bass.

Hollin

, C.R. (2003). Aggression Replacement training: Putting theory and research to work.

Reclaiming Children and Youth, 12 (3),

132-135.

LeBlanc, M.M. and

Kelloway

, E.K. (2002). Predictors and outcomes of workplace violence and aggression.

Journal of Applied Psychology, 87 (3),

444-453.

Martinko

, M.J., Douglas, S.C., and Harvey, P. (2006). Understanding and managing workplace aggression. Organizational Dynamics, 35 (2), 117-130.

 

Nuckols

, C.C. (1994). Reducing workplace violence. Behavioral Health Management, 14 (4), 5-7.

 

Ohbuchi

, K,

Agarie

, N. and Kameda, M. (1989). Apology as aggression control: Its role in mediating appraisal of and response to harm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56 (2), 219-227.

Peacock, J. (2000). Anger Management. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press.

 

Rokach

, A. (1987). Anger and aggression control training: Replacing attack with interaction. Psychotherapy, 24 (3), 353-362.

 

Vanderbilt University Medical Center Universal Behavioral Precautions Techniques of Verbal De-escalation. Retrieved March 22, 2009, from http://vumc.edu/deescaation.

 

Wood Holes Oceanographic Institution Human Resource Workplace Violence Prevention Plan. Retrieved March 16, 2009, fromhttp://www.whoi.edu/services/HR/supervis/violence.html

 

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