Chapter 12 Motivation and Emotion Introduction Why study Motivation amp Emotion together Motivation refers to the set of factors that activate direct and maintain behaviour usually towards some goal ID: 586902 Download Presentation
Chapter 12 Motivation and Emotion. Introduction. Why study Motivation . &. . Emotion together. ?. Motivation refers to the set of factors that activate, direct and maintain behaviour, usually towards some goal. .
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Theories of Motivation
Chapter 12 Motivation and EmotionSlide2
Why study Motivation
Motivation refers to the set of factors that activate, direct and maintain behaviour, usually towards some goal.
refers to a subjective feeling that includes arousal (heart pounding), cognitions (thoughts, values and expectations), and expressive behaviours (smiles, frowns, and running).
study them together because they are inseparable.Slide3
behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
: fixed, unlearned, genetically programmed patterns of
behaviors are rooting
, sucking, and
Theory (Clark Hull)
Drive reduction theory is about motivation starting with a physiological need that directs a drive towards behavior that will satisfy the need and once it is met the state of balance also known as homeostasis is restored and that motivation decreases.
conditions that relate to survival
drive state builds as deprivation continues
is geared to reduce the need or deficit
, drinking, and breathing Slide6
3. Arousal Theory
motivated to achieve and maintain an optimal level of arousal or stimulation that maximizes
performance and that performance
is diminished when arousal is too high or too low
. When we are too aroused and become anxious you tend to be less likely to do well on a test “freeze up”. Whereas if you are under aroused and sleepy you can make careless
1. Incentive Theory
Motivation results from external stimuli that pulls the organism in certain direction.
: a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviour.
of Drive Reduction Theory because
according to the DRT internal factors push people in certain directions
sight of apple pie pulls us to eat a piece.
sight of something gross would drive us away from
2. Cognitive Consistency
is directly affected by attributions or how we interpret or
about our own and others actions
we receive a high grade on a test and believe that this grade was the result of hard work, we would be motivated to study hard again.
opposite would be if
you thought you
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Humanistic Theory)Slide11
Hierarchy of Needs (Humanistic Theory)
This theory suggests that lower motives
be met before advancing to higher
successive level of the hierarchy is addressed only after the preceding level's needs have been
ultimate goal is self-actualization, which is complete fulfillment of one's potential
Psychological Needs Explained
Need to satisfy hunger
secure, safe and stable.
Belonging and Love Needs:
Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted, avoid loneliness and alienation.
Need for self esteem, achievement, competence, independence, respect from others.
Need to live up to ones fullest and unique potential.Slide13
Chapter 12 Motivation & EmotionSlide14
desire for significant accomplishment, excellence or success that constantly motivated