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Theories of Motivation

Chapter 12 Motivation and Emotion. Introduction. Why study Motivation . &. . Emotion together. ?. Motivation refers to the set of factors that activate, direct and maintain behaviour, usually towards some goal. .

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Theories of Motivation




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Slide1

Theories of Motivation

Chapter 12 Motivation and EmotionSlide2

Introduction

Why study Motivation

&

Emotion together

?

Motivation refers to the set of factors that activate, direct and maintain behaviour, usually towards some goal.

Emotion

refers to a subjective feeling that includes arousal (heart pounding), cognitions (thoughts, values and expectations), and expressive behaviours (smiles, frowns, and running).

We

study them together because they are inseparable.Slide3

Biological Theories

Instinct

Drive

Reduction

Theory

Arousal

TheorySlide4

1. Instinct

Theory

(

William

James

1890)

Complex

behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

Instincts

: fixed, unlearned, genetically programmed patterns of

behavior

Examples

of human

behaviors are rooting

, sucking, and

graspingSlide5

2. Drive-Reduction

Theory (Clark Hull)

Drive reduction theory is about motivation starting with a physiological need that directs a drive towards behavior that will satisfy the need and once it is met the state of balance also known as homeostasis is restored and that motivation decreases.

Drives

are

internal

conditions that relate to survival

needs

The

drive state builds as deprivation continues

Behavior

is geared to reduce the need or deficit

Eating

, drinking, and breathing Slide6

3. Arousal Theory

Organisms are

motivated to achieve and maintain an optimal level of arousal or stimulation that maximizes

performance and that performance

is diminished when arousal is too high or too low

.

Ex

. When we are too aroused and become anxious you tend to be less likely to do well on a test “freeze up”. Whereas if you are under aroused and sleepy you can make careless

mistakes

.Slide7

Psychosocial Theories

Incentive Theory

Cognitive TheoriesSlide8

1. Incentive Theory

Motivation results from external stimuli that pulls the organism in certain direction.

Incentives

: a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviour.

Opposite

of Drive Reduction Theory because

according to the DRT internal factors push people in certain directions

.

Ex. The

sight of apple pie pulls us to eat a piece.

Ex. The

sight of something gross would drive us away from

eating

.Slide9

2. Cognitive Consistency

T

heory

Motivation

is directly affected by attributions or how we interpret or

think

about our own and others actions

.

Ex. If

we receive a high grade on a test and believe that this grade was the result of hard work, we would be motivated to study hard again.

Ex. The

opposite would be if

you thought you

just “lucked

out”Slide10

Biopsychosocial Theory

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Humanistic Theory)Slide11

1. Maslow’s

Hierarchy of Needs (Humanistic Theory)

This theory suggests that lower motives

must

be met before advancing to higher

needs.

Abraham

Maslow's

Hierarchy

of

Needs

Each

successive level of the hierarchy is addressed only after the preceding level's needs have been

met

The

ultimate goal is self-actualization, which is complete fulfillment of one's potential

to

find

self-fulfilment

.Slide12

Psychological Needs Explained

Physiological Needs:

Need to satisfy hunger

and thirst.

Safety Needs:

Need to

feel

secure, safe and stable.

Belonging and Love Needs:

Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted, avoid loneliness and alienation.

Esteem

Needs:

Need for self esteem, achievement, competence, independence, respect from others.

Self-

Actualization Needs

:

Need to live up to ones fullest and unique potential.Slide13

Achievement Motivation

Chapter 12 Motivation & EmotionSlide14

Achievement Motivation

The

desire for significant accomplishment, excellence or success that constantly motivated

behaviour.

Marked

by moderately difficult but achievable

goals as its success

may not lie in ability, but rather in

motivation.Slide15

Causes

Birth Order

First born vs. second born… third born?

Cultural Influences

Collectivist societies encourage group success

Individualistic societies encourage individual success Slide16

Causes

2. Parenting (Can

e

nhance achievement motivation)

Parents who emphasize excellence and provide affection for achievement.

Encouraging children to attempt difficult tasks.

Providing strategies to succeed rather than discouraging complaints about failures.

Give praise and appropriate rewards for success.

Encouraging the child to accept new challenges after success.Slide17

Causes

3. Belief/Expectation

“What your mind can conceive and believe you can achieve.”

Conviction of self-efficacy (a persons belief in their own competence

.Slide18

Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic Motivation:

the desire to perform a behavior for its own sake or to be effective.

Extrinsic Motivation:

the desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.

Can we think of some examples of both types of Motivation?Slide19

Keys to Motivating Others

Create intrinsic rewards

Identify people’s motives

Set clear goals

Have the right leadership style