Chapter Eight Motivation and Emotion Motivation Biological emotional cognitive or social forces that activate and direct behavior Emotion a psychological state involving subjective experience physiological response and behavioral or expressive response ID: 625778 Download Presentation
Chapter Eight. Motivation and Emotion. Motivation:. Biological, emotional, cognitive, or social forces that activate and direct behavior.. Emotion:. a psychological state involving subjective experience, physiological response, and behavioral or expressive response..
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Motivation and Emotion
Motivation and Emotion
Biological, emotional, cognitive, or social forces that activate and direct behavior.
a psychological state involving subjective experience, physiological response, and behavioral or expressive response.Slide3
Motivation and Emotion
There are three basic characteristics commonly associated with motivation: activation, persistence
is demonstrated by initiation or production of behavior.
is seen in the greater vigor of
that usually accompanies motivated behavior.
is demonstrated by continued efforts or determination to achieve a particular goal.Slide4
Sharon King Grimm
Motivational Concepts and Theories
People are motivated to engage in certain behaviors because of evolutionary programming.
In the 1920s, instinct theories had fallen out of favor as an explanation of human motivation, primarily because of the
theories lacked explanatory power.
The general idea that human behaviors are innate and genetically influenced did remain important.Slide5
James’s List of Human Instincts
Drive Theories: Biological Needs as Motivators
by drive theories.
Instinct theories were replaced by drive theories.Slide7
Incentive Motivation: Goal Objects as Motivators
Behavior is motivated by “pull” of external goals, such as rewards, money, or recognition.
Incentive theories based on learning principles from Pavlov, Watson, Skinner, and
stressed importance of cognitive factors and expectation of goals in motivation.Slide8
Arousal Theory: Optimal Stimulation as a Motivator
People experience both very high levels of arousal and very low levels of arousal as being quite unpleasant.
When arousal is too low, we experience boredom and become motivated to increase arousal.
When arousal is too high, we seek to reduce arousal in a less-stimulating environment. Slide9
Arousal Theory: Sensation Seeking
varies from person
to person; it
is especially evident
seekers, who find
the heightened arousal of novel experiences very pleasurable.
eople who rank
high on the dimension of sensation seeking have a need for varied, complex, and unique sensory experiences.
Human Potential as a Motivator
Rogers and Maslow
Emphasized importance of psychological and cognitive factors in motivation
Proposed that people are motivated to realize their personal potential
Developed the most famous humanistic model of motivation (Maslow’s hierarchy of needs)
a powerful motive. These
are trying to open
a complicated lock
, despite the lack of an
reward for their behavior.Slide11
Hunger and Eating
Terms to LearnSlide12
Delicious or Disgusting?
is a universal human motive. However
influences what we eat
we eat, and how we
High in protein and
, insects are standard fare
countries.Would you order grasshoppers or caterpillars for lunch?Slide13
CALORIES CONSUMED = CALORIES EXPENDEDSlide14
Physiological Signals That Regulate Eating
Slight drop in blood glucose
Slight increase in insulin—30 minutes before eating
Appetite stimulation from hormone ghrelin
in stomach lining
Stimulates secretion of growth hormone by pituitary gland in brain
Blood levels of ghrelin rise sharply before and fall abruptly after mealsSlide15
Psychological Factors that Trigger Eating
Time of day at which you normally eat
elicits reflexive internal physiological changes
Blood levels of insulin, glucose, and ghrelin change
Increased body temperature; decreased metabolism
Internal physiological changes increase your sense of hunger; stimuli can be associated with anticipation of eating
Preference for certain tastes: sweet, salty, and fatty (positive incentive value)Slide16
in stomach communicate
[CCK]) slowing rate at which stomach empties
satiety: reduced desire to continue consuming a particular food; now we want dessert
Satiation Signals: When to stop eatingSlide17
Long-Term Satiation Signals:
When to Stop
Regulating Appetite and
Multiple signals interact to regulate
and energy expenditure so that
stable body weight
is maintained over
is stimulated (+)
levels of ghrelin and neuropeptide Y. Appetite is suppressed (-) by increased
, insulin, and CCK.Slide19
Excess Weight and ObesitySlide20
Excess Weight and Obesity
More than two-thirds of American adults and almost one-third of children are above their healthy weight.
Worldwide, one and a half billion adults are overweight.
Percentage of overweight people increases throughout adulthood, peaking in fifth and sixth decades of life.
Healthy weight determined by
Body mass index (BMI): Numerical scale indicating height in relation to weight
Obesity: Condition characterized by excessive body fat and a BMI equal to or greater than 30.0
Overweight: Condition characterized by BMI between 25.0 and 29.9Slide21
Factors Involved in Becoming Overweight
much people eat and how the calories are
incentive value: highly palatable foodsCafeteria diet effect: more choice, more consumedBasal metabolic rate (BMR)Sedentary lifestyleToo little sleepIndividual differences and lifespan changesSlide22
Factors Involved in Obesity: Interaction of
People with a family history of obesity are two to three times more likely to become obese than people with no such family history.
Obesity also occurs in about 30 percent of children with parents who are of normal weight.
High-risk environment for obesity and metabolic factors (
resistance) after obesity influence ongoing risk.Slide23
Dopamine Receptors and Obesity:
Role of Pleasure in Eating and Obesity
Landmark study finds that obese
in the study had significantly
people in the study, the number of dopamine
as BMI increased (Wang and colleagues). People ate more to compensate for reduced brain rewards; overeating reduced the dopamine reward system levels even further; vicious circle ensues.Slide24
Can overeating lead to brain changes in humans?
and colleagues: fMRI research
Response of overweight women to milkshake consumption was related to amount of weight gain between trials.
Implication is that people eat more to compensate for reduced brain rewards.
can be a
Multiple factors are involved in understanding human sexuality.
Psychologists consider the drive to have sex a basic human motive.
How accurate are media images of
Sexual themes and images are
often used to sell products, market movies, and
Human Sexuality: The Stages of Human Sexual Response
Masters and Johnson’s findings indicated that the human sexual response could be described as a cycle with four stages.
Critics thought their research had violated “sacred ground” and dehumanized sexuality.
However, Masters and Johnson were also praised for advancing the understanding of human sexuality and dispelling misconceptions.
Johnson observed hundreds of individuals engaged in more than 10,000 episodes of sexual activity in their
Human Sexuality: Stages
The Male and Female Sexual
The figure on the left depicts the three basic variations of the female sexual response. Slide29
What Motivates Sexual Behavior?
urvival of the species
Hormonal changes in the female (lower animals)
earning and environmental influences (higher species)
The Bonobos of the
to play an important role in maintaining peaceful relations among members of
the bonobo group.Slide30
The Elusive Search for an Explanation
According to the most recent estimates, about 7% of women and 5% of men report having engaged in homosexual behavior at some point.
What Determines Sexual Orientation?Slide32
What Determines Sexual Orientation
Psychological Needs as Motivators
According to motivation theories of Maslow and of
and Ryan, psychological needs must be fulfilled for optimal human functioning
Are there universal psychological needs?
Are we internally or externally motivated to satisfy
psychological needs must be satisfied for optimal human functioning?Slide34
Maslow’s Characteristics of Self-Actualized People
Deci and Ryan’s Self-Determination
people are actively
move toward a
unified sense of
self and integration with others
Intrinsic motivationExtrinsic motivationThree innate and universal psychological needs must be satisfied.AutonomyCompetenceRelatednessSlide37
Maslow and Self-Actualization
psychology to focus on motivation and
of psychologically healthy people
Vague and almost impossible to define in a way that would allow it to be tested scientifically
Initial studies on self-actualization were based on limited samples with questionable reliability
Most people do not experience or achieve self-actualization
Competence and Achievement MotivationSlide39
on personal, individual success, rather than
on a group’s success; is
closely linked to success in competitive tasks.
cultures’ orientation is toward social harmony and promoting one’s group and/or family.
Motivation and CultureSlide40
psychological state that involves subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive
emotional state that is more general and pervasive, such as gloominess or
The Many Functions of EmotionSlide41
Functions of Emotions
Early psychologists considered emotions to be disruptive forces that interfered with rational behavior.
Emotion moves us to act, set goals, and make rational decisions.
People who have lost the capacity to feel emotion because of damage to specific brain areas tend to make disastrous decisions.
Emotional intelligence levels influence reasoning and decision-making.Slide42
Evolutionary Explanation of Emotion
: Emotions reflect evolutionary adaptations to problems of survival and reproduction; they inform others about our individual states
: Emotions aid in solving adaptive problems posed by the environment.
Subjective Experience of Emotion
Emotion researchers agree there are a limited number of basic emotions and responses.
Each basic emotion represents a sequence of responses that is innate and hard-wired in the brain.
People often experience mixed emotions, in which very different emotions are felt simultaneously or in rapid succession.Slide44
Culture, Gender, and Emotional Experience
Fundamental dimensions of emotion
to which the emotion is pleasant or
evel of activation, or arousal, associated with emotion
Cultural variations in classification
Japanese: Added interpersonal engagement to other two
Gender: Gender similarity in emotional frequency and experience, but difference in expression of emotionsSlide45
Neuroscience of Emotion
Emotions are associated with distinct patterns of responses by the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system and in the brain.
Different emotions stimulate different responses.
Differing patterns of sympathetic nervous system activation are universal.Slide46
Does a polygraph detect lies?
No. It measures physiological changes associated with emotions; technique based on assumption that lying is accompanied by anxiety, fear, and stress.
There is no unique physiological arousal pattern for lying.
Some people can lie without experiencing anxiety or arousal.
Innocent people may be fearful or anxious when asked incriminating questions.
Interpretation of polygraphs can be highly subjective.
may produce nonverbal cues.Slide47
The Emotional Brain: Fear and the Amygdala
Part of limbic system
Activates when something
sounds related to fear
Evaluates significance of stimuli and generates emotional
responses as well as generates
hormonal secretions and autonomic reactions that accompany strong emotionsSlide48
Mapping Emotions in the Body
As expressions like “cold feet” or “butterflies in the stomach” reflect, emotions are often associated with physical sensations. Finnish psychologist
and his colleagues (2014) investigated this phenomenon in a clever study.Slide49
Activating the Amygdala: Direct and Indirect Neural Pathways
Fear Circuits in
Do you know what happens?Slide50
Do Different Emotions Activate Different Brain Areas?
and colleagues used PET imaging to study patterns of brain activation and deactivation while participants recalled emotionally charged memories.
Sadness, happiness, anger, and fear produced distinctly different patterns.
Sensory signals from the peripheral nervous system contributed to the overall subjective feeling of a particular emotion.Slide51
The Expression of Emotion
heorized that human emotional expressions are innate and culturally universal
stimates that the human face is capable of creating more than 7,000 different expressions
Spontaneous facial expressions of children and young adults who were born blind do not differ from those of sighted children and adults.Slide52
The Expression of Emotion: Making Faces
Ekman and colleagues
different facial expressions by painstakingly analyzing the facial
in producing each
expressions that characterize the basic emotions of happiness, sadness, surprise
, fear, anger, and disgustConcluded that facial expressions for the basic emotions are innate and probably hard-wired in the brainSlide53
Culture and Emotional Expression
expressions for the basic emotions—happiness, sadness, anger, fear
, and disgust—are hard-wired into the
brain and are the same across cultures.
Basic emotions are biologically determined.
conditioning, gender-role expectations, and other
shape how, when, and whether emotional responses are displayed.Slide54
Theories of Emotion
James-Lange theory of emotion
Stimulus is perceived.
Physiological and behavioral changes
are experienced as
James-Lange Theory of EmotionSlide56
James-Lange Theory of EmotionSlide57
Turning Your Goals into Reality
Strategies and suggestions that can help you get motivated, take action, and achieve your goals.