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Motivation and Emotion

Chapter Eight. Motivation and Emotion. Motivation:. Biological, emotional, cognitive, or social forces that activate and direct behavior.. Emotion:. a psychological state involving subjective experience, physiological response, and behavioral or expressive response..

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Motivation and Emotion




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Slide1

Motivation and Emotion

Chapter EightSlide2

Motivation and Emotion

Motivation:

Biological, emotional, cognitive, or social forces that activate and direct behavior.

Emotion:

a psychological state involving subjective experience, physiological response, and behavioral or expressive response.Slide3

Motivation and Emotion

There are three basic characteristics commonly associated with motivation: activation, persistence

, and

intensity.

Activation

is demonstrated by initiation or production of behavior.

Intensity

is seen in the greater vigor of

the response

that usually accompanies motivated behavior.

Persistence

is demonstrated by continued efforts or determination to achieve a particular goal.Slide4

Sharon King Grimm

Motivational Concepts and Theories

Instinct Theories

People are motivated to engage in certain behaviors because of evolutionary programming.

In the 1920s, instinct theories had fallen out of favor as an explanation of human motivation, primarily because of the

the

theories lacked explanatory power.

The general idea that human behaviors are innate and genetically influenced did remain important.Slide5

James’s List of Human Instincts

Attachment

Resentment

Fear

Curiosity

Disgust

Shyness

Rivalry

Sociability

Greediness

Bashfulness

Suspicion

Secretiveness

Hunting

Cleanliness

Play

Modesty

Shame

Love

Anger

Parental LoveSlide6

Drive Theories: Biological Needs as Motivators

re

replaced

by drive theories.

Instinct theories were replaced by drive theories.Slide7

Incentive Motivation: Goal Objects as Motivators

Incentive theories

Behavior is motivated by “pull” of external goals, such as rewards, money, or recognition.

Incentive theories based on learning principles from Pavlov, Watson, Skinner, and

Tolman

.

Tolman

stressed importance of cognitive factors and expectation of goals in motivation.Slide8

Arousal Theory: Optimal Stimulation as a Motivator

People experience both very high levels of arousal and very low levels of arousal as being quite unpleasant.

When arousal is too low, we experience boredom and become motivated to increase arousal.

When arousal is too high, we seek to reduce arousal in a less-stimulating environment. Slide9

Arousal Theory: Sensation Seeking

T

he

optimal level

of arousal

varies from person

to person; it

is especially evident

in sensation

seekers, who find

the heightened arousal of novel experiences very pleasurable.

P

eople who rank

high on the dimension of sensation seeking have a need for varied, complex, and unique sensory experiences.

Sensation Seeking:

Extreme

SkiingSlide10

Humanistic Theory:

Human Potential as a Motivator

Rogers and Maslow

Emphasized importance of psychological and cognitive factors in motivation

Proposed that people are motivated to realize their personal potential

Developed the most famous humanistic model of motivation (Maslow’s hierarchy of needs)

Harry

Harlow (

1953)

found that

arousal was

a powerful motive. These

young monkeys

are trying to open

a complicated lock

, despite the lack of an

incentive or

reward for their behavior.Slide11

Hunger and Eating

Terms to LearnSlide12

Delicious or Disgusting?

The need

to eat

is a universal human motive. However

, culture

influences what we eat

, when

we eat, and how we

eat.

High in protein and

readily available

, insects are standard fare

in many

countries.Would you order grasshoppers or caterpillars for lunch?Slide13

Energy

Homeostasis

CALORIES CONSUMED = CALORIES EXPENDEDSlide14

Physiological Signals That Regulate Eating

Slight drop in blood glucose

Slight increase in insulin—30 minutes before eating

Appetite stimulation from hormone ghrelin

Hormone

is manufactured

in stomach lining

Stimulates secretion of growth hormone by pituitary gland in brain

Stimulates appetite

Blood levels of ghrelin rise sharply before and fall abruptly after mealsSlide15

Psychological Factors that Trigger Eating

Classical conditioning

Time of day at which you normally eat

(conditioned stimulus)

elicits reflexive internal physiological changes

(conditioned response)

Blood levels of insulin, glucose, and ghrelin change

Increased body temperature; decreased metabolism

Internal physiological changes increase your sense of hunger; stimuli can be associated with anticipation of eating

Operant conditioning

Preference for certain tastes: sweet, salty, and fatty (positive incentive value)Slide16

Satiation signals

Stretch

receptors

in stomach communicate

sensory

information

Signals

from stomach

(cholecystokinin

[CCK]) slowing rate at which stomach empties

Sensory-specific

satiety: reduced desire to continue consuming a particular food; now we want dessert

!

Satiation Signals: When to stop eatingSlide17

Long-Term Satiation Signals:

When to Stop

E

atingSlide18

Regulating Appetite and

Body Weight

Multiple signals interact to regulate

appetite

and energy expenditure so that

a

stable body weight

is maintained over

time.

A

ppetite

is stimulated (+)

by increased

levels of ghrelin and neuropeptide Y. Appetite is suppressed (-) by increased

levels of

leptin

, insulin, and CCK.Slide19

Excess Weight and ObesitySlide20

Excess Weight and Obesity

Prevalence

More than two-thirds of American adults and almost one-third of children are above their healthy weight.

Worldwide, one and a half billion adults are overweight.

Percentage of overweight people increases throughout adulthood, peaking in fifth and sixth decades of life.

Healthy weight determined by

Body mass index (BMI): Numerical scale indicating height in relation to weight

Obesity: Condition characterized by excessive body fat and a BMI equal to or greater than 30.0

Overweight: Condition characterized by BMI between 25.0 and 29.9Slide21

Factors Involved in Becoming Overweight

M

ultiple

factors

affect how

much people eat and how the calories are

metabolized.

Supersize

It

syndrome: overeating

Positive

incentive value: highly palatable foodsCafeteria diet effect: more choice, more consumedBasal metabolic rate (BMR)Sedentary lifestyleToo little sleepIndividual differences and lifespan changesSlide22

Factors Involved in Obesity: Interaction of

Genetics

and

Environment

People with a family history of obesity are two to three times more likely to become obese than people with no such family history.

Obesity also occurs in about 30 percent of children with parents who are of normal weight.

High-risk environment for obesity and metabolic factors (

leptin

resistance) after obesity influence ongoing risk.Slide23

Dopamine Receptors and Obesity:

Role of Pleasure in Eating and Obesity

Landmark study finds that obese

individuals

in the study had significantly

fewer dopamine

receptors than

the normal-weight

individuals

.

Among obese

people in the study, the number of dopamine

receptors decreased

as BMI increased (Wang and colleagues). People ate more to compensate for reduced brain rewards; overeating reduced the dopamine reward system levels even further; vicious circle ensues.Slide24

Can overeating lead to brain changes in humans?

Stice

and colleagues: fMRI research

Response of overweight women to milkshake consumption was related to amount of weight gain between trials.

Implication is that people eat more to compensate for reduced brain rewards.

O

besity

can be a

vicious circle!Slide25

Human Sexuality

Multiple factors are involved in understanding human sexuality.

Psychologists consider the drive to have sex a basic human motive.

How accurate are media images of

human sexuality

?

Sexual themes and images are

often used to sell products, market movies, and

boost TV

ratings. Slide26

Human Sexuality: The Stages of Human Sexual Response

Masters and Johnson’s findings indicated that the human sexual response could be described as a cycle with four stages.

Critics thought their research had violated “sacred ground” and dehumanized sexuality.

However, Masters and Johnson were also praised for advancing the understanding of human sexuality and dispelling misconceptions.

Masters and

Johnson observed hundreds of individuals engaged in more than 10,000 episodes of sexual activity in their

laboratory.Slide27

Human Sexuality: Stages

of

Human Sexual

R

esponseSlide28

The Male and Female Sexual

Response

Cycles

The figure on the left depicts the three basic variations of the female sexual response. Slide29

What Motivates Sexual Behavior?

S

urvival of the species

Hormonal changes in the female (lower animals)

L

earning and environmental influences (higher species)

The Bonobos of the

Congo.

Their sexual

behavior is

not limited

to reproduction;

it seems

to play an important role in maintaining peaceful relations among members of

the bonobo group.Slide30

Sexual Orientation:

The Elusive Search for an Explanation

According to the most recent estimates, about 7% of women and 5% of men report having engaged in homosexual behavior at some point.

Sexual orientation

Heterosexual

Homosexual

Gay

Lesbian

BisexualSlide31

What Determines Sexual Orientation?Slide32

What Determines Sexual Orientation

?Slide33

Psychological Needs as Motivators

According to motivation theories of Maslow and of

Deci

and Ryan, psychological needs must be fulfilled for optimal human functioning

Are there universal psychological needs?

Are we internally or externally motivated to satisfy

psychological

needs

?

What

psychological needs must be satisfied for optimal human functioning?Slide34

Maslow’s Hierarchy

of NeedsSlide35

Maslow’s Characteristics of Self-Actualized People

Realism and

acceptance

Spontaneity

Problem centering

Autonomy

Continued freshness

of appreciation

Peak

experiencesSlide36

Deci and Ryan’s Self-Determination

Theory (SDT)

SDT proposes

that

people are actively

growth-

oriented and

that they

move toward a

unified sense of

self and integration with others

.

Intrinsic motivationExtrinsic motivationThree innate and universal psychological needs must be satisfied.AutonomyCompetenceRelatednessSlide37

Maslow and Self-Actualization

Maslow’s Contributions

E

ncouraged

psychology to focus on motivation and

the development

of psychologically healthy people

Critiques

Vague and almost impossible to define in a way that would allow it to be tested scientifically

Initial studies on self-actualization were based on limited samples with questionable reliability

Most people do not experience or achieve self-actualization

Abraham MaslowSlide38

Competence and Achievement MotivationSlide39

Individualistic

cultures focus

on personal, individual success, rather than

on a group’s success; is

closely linked to success in competitive tasks.

Collectivistic

cultures’ orientation is toward social harmony and promoting one’s group and/or family.

Motivation and CultureSlide40

Emotion

Emotion

C

omplex

psychological state that involves subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive

response

Mood

M

ilder

emotional state that is more general and pervasive, such as gloominess or

contentment

The Many Functions of EmotionSlide41

Functions of Emotions

Early psychologists considered emotions to be disruptive forces that interfered with rational behavior.

Today’s views

Emotion moves us to act, set goals, and make rational decisions.

People who have lost the capacity to feel emotion because of damage to specific brain areas tend to make disastrous decisions.

Emotional intelligence levels influence reasoning and decision-making.Slide42

Evolutionary Explanation of Emotion

Darwin

: Emotions reflect evolutionary adaptations to problems of survival and reproduction; they inform others about our individual states

Today

: Emotions aid in solving adaptive problems posed by the environment.

Fear

Anger

Love

DisgustSlide43

Subjective Experience of Emotion

Emotion researchers agree there are a limited number of basic emotions and responses.

Each basic emotion represents a sequence of responses that is innate and hard-wired in the brain.

People often experience mixed emotions, in which very different emotions are felt simultaneously or in rapid succession.Slide44

Culture, Gender, and Emotional Experience

Fundamental dimensions of emotion

D

egree

to which the emotion is pleasant or

unpleasant

L

evel of activation, or arousal, associated with emotion

Cultural variations in classification

Japanese: Added interpersonal engagement to other two

Gender: Gender similarity in emotional frequency and experience, but difference in expression of emotionsSlide45

Neuroscience of Emotion

Emotions are associated with distinct patterns of responses by the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system and in the brain.

Different emotions stimulate different responses.

Differing patterns of sympathetic nervous system activation are universal.Slide46

Detecting Lies

Does a polygraph detect lies?

No. It measures physiological changes associated with emotions; technique based on assumption that lying is accompanied by anxiety, fear, and stress.

Potential problems

There is no unique physiological arousal pattern for lying.

Some people can lie without experiencing anxiety or arousal.

Innocent people may be fearful or anxious when asked incriminating questions.

Interpretation of polygraphs can be highly subjective.

Microexpressions

may produce nonverbal cues.Slide47

The Emotional Brain: Fear and the Amygdala

Amygdala:

Part of limbic system

Activates when something

is threatening

,

seeing fearful

faces, or

hearing

sounds related to fear

Evaluates significance of stimuli and generates emotional

responses as well as generates

hormonal secretions and autonomic reactions that accompany strong emotionsSlide48

Mapping Emotions in the Body

As expressions like “cold feet” or “butterflies in the stomach” reflect, emotions are often associated with physical sensations. Finnish psychologist

Lauri

Nummenmaa

and his colleagues (2014) investigated this phenomenon in a clever study.Slide49

Activating the Amygdala: Direct and Indirect Neural Pathways

Fear Circuits in

the Brain

Do you know what happens?Slide50

Do Different Emotions Activate Different Brain Areas?

Damasio

and colleagues used PET imaging to study patterns of brain activation and deactivation while participants recalled emotionally charged memories.

Sadness, happiness, anger, and fear produced distinctly different patterns.

Sensory signals from the peripheral nervous system contributed to the overall subjective feeling of a particular emotion.Slide51

The Expression of Emotion

Darwin (1872)

T

heorized that human emotional expressions are innate and culturally universal

Ekman (1980)

E

stimates that the human face is capable of creating more than 7,000 different expressions

Spontaneous facial expressions of children and young adults who were born blind do not differ from those of sighted children and adults.Slide52

The Expression of Emotion: Making Faces

Ekman and colleagues

C

oded

different facial expressions by painstakingly analyzing the facial

muscles involved

in producing each

expression.

P

recisely

classified

the facial

expressions that characterize the basic emotions of happiness, sadness, surprise

, fear, anger, and disgustConcluded that facial expressions for the basic emotions are innate and probably hard-wired in the brainSlide53

Culture and Emotional Expression

Ekman

F

acial

expressions for the basic emotions—happiness, sadness, anger, fear

, surprise

, and disgust—are hard-wired into the

brain and are the same across cultures.

Basic emotions are biologically determined.

C

ultural

conditioning, gender-role expectations, and other

learning experiences

shape how, when, and whether emotional responses are displayed.Slide54

Theories of Emotion

James-Lange theory of emotion

Stimulus is perceived.

Physiological and behavioral changes

occur.

T

hese

changes

are experienced as

a particular

emotion.Slide55

James-Lange Theory of EmotionSlide56

James-Lange Theory of EmotionSlide57

Turning Your Goals into Reality

Strategies and suggestions that can help you get motivated, take action, and achieve your goals.

Strengthen sense of self-efficacy

Turn

goals into actions

Mentally rehearse and visualize the process