Motivation, Emotion & Stress

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Motivation, Emotion & Stress - Description

: . Stress & Health. Designated Unit. : . Unit II. The Biological Bases. Part one. Stress & Health. : . The Basics. Stress & Health. : . The Basics. Stress. The process by which we perceive & respond to certain events (known as . ID: 735309 Download Presentation

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Motivation, Emotion & Stress

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Motivation, Emotion & Stress: Stress & Health

Designated Unit

: Unit IIThe Biological Bases


Part oneStress & Health:

The Basics


Stress & Health: The Basics

StressThe process by which we perceive & respond to certain events (known as stressors) that we appraise as threatening and/or challengingStress is not…

A simple stimulus or responseNecessarily a negative thing


Stress & Health: The Basics

Richard Lazarus (1991)Cognitive Appraisal ApproachPrimary AppraisalAn initial evaluation of whether

an event is…(1) irrelevant to you(2) relevant but not threatening(3) stressfulSecondary AppraisalAn evaluation of your coping resources & options for dealing with the stressor

Other factors?


Stress & Health: The Basics

Two major classifications of stress…Acute StressorsRelatively short in duration with a clear endpointAn encounter with a belligerent customer

A major examAn impending natural disasterChronic StressorsRelatively long in duration with no apparent endpointPersistent financial strainsA sick family memberA hostile boss


Part twoStress & Health:

Types of Stress


Stress & Health: Types of Stress

Frustration Occurs in any situation in which the pursuit of some goal is thwarted Insignificant (in terms of

stress)Traffic jam/difficult commuteBroken air conditioner Significant (in terms of stress)

Failure and/or loss


Stress & Health: Types of StressConflict

Occurs when two (or more) incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expressionApproach-Approach ConflictA choice must be made between two attractive goals

Avoidance-Avoidance ConflictA choice must be made between two unattractive goalsApproach-Avoidance ConflictA choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive & unattractive aspects

Often produce vacillation…


Stress & Health: Types of Stress

Life ChangesAny significant alterations to one’s circumstances that require readjustmentSocial Readjustment Rating Scale (Holmes & Rahe, 1967)

Death of a spouse (100)Divorce (73)Marital Separation (65)Jail Term (63)Death of a close family member (63)Personal injury or illness (53)Marriage (50)


Stress & Health: Types of StressPressure

Involves expectations or demands that one behave in a certain waySalespeopleProfessorsStand-up comediansSuburban homeowners



Part threeStress & Health:

Stress Responses


Stress & Health: Stress Responses

Emotional ResponsesDependent on the stimulus (and one’s personality)…Common responses to stress typically occur along three dimensions of emotion

(1) Annoyance, anger, rage(2) Apprehension, anxiety, fear(3) Dejection, sadness, griefPositive emotions?Yerkes-Dodson LawAsserts that there is an optimal level of emotional arousal for any given task (i.e. coping with stress





Stress & Health: Types of StressPhysiological Responses

Selye’s General Adaptation SyndromeA model of the body’s stress response, consisting of three separate stagesAlarmResistanceExhaustion

Fight-or-Flight Response


Stress & Health: Types of StressBehavioral Responses

Most behavioral responses to stress involve copingActive efforts to master, reduce or tolerate the demands created by stress; can be helpful or maladaptive Coping MechanismsLearned helplessness

Self-blameAggression CatharsisSelf-indulgenceDefense mechanisms


Stress & Health: Types of Stress

Constructive CopingHealthy efforts to deal with stressful eventsHow?Direct confrontation of

the problemRealistic appraisal of the stress & coping resourcesLearning to recognize, and in some cases regulate, potentially disruptive emotional reactions to stress


Part fourStress & Health:

Effects of Stress


Stress & Health: Effects of Stress

Psychological EffectsBurnoutPhysical & emotional exhaustion, as well as cynicism and a lowered sense of self-efficacy

Generally brought on by work-related stressPsychological problems & disordersPoor academic performance, sleep disturbances, sexual difficulties, alcohol & drug abuse, etc.Positive effects?Resilience Successful adaptation to significant stress & trauma


Stress & Health: Effects of Stress

Physical EffectsHeart diseaseSpecifically coronary heart disease (90% of heart related deaths)Emotional reactions & depression also linked to heart disease

Immune functioningReduced immune activityAsthma, cancer, chronic pain, common cold, herpes, IBS, migraine headaches, rheumatoid arthritis, skin disorders, ulcers, etc.


Part FiveStress & Health:

Personality Factors


Stress & Health: Personality Factors

Type AGeneral CharacteristicsCompetitive & ambitious Time urgency & impatienceAnger & hostility

Easily annoyedIn life…Tend to be workaholicsOften successful, but frequently unsatisfiedFind it very difficult to relax/to do nothingMore prone to..?


Stress & Health: Personality FactorsType B

General CharacteristicsLess competitive & drivenEasygoing & slow to angerRelaxed & amicableCharismatic


Stress & Health: Personality FactorsType C

General CharacteristicsPeople-pleasers Peace-keepers Often lonely Find it difficult to express emotions, especially negative ones

More prone to..?


Stress & Health: Personality FactorsType H (Hardy Personality)

General Characteristics Type A individuals who thrive on stress, rather than succumbing to it Different from the traditional

Type A in three key ways…CommitmentControlChallenge


Stress & Health: Personality FactorsIn conclusion…

If life gives you lemons…Type A people get enraged & throw the lemons back, having a minor heart attack while doing so…Type B people gather all of the lemons & make lemonade…Type C people don’t say anything, but fume inside where no one can see…

Type H people gather the lemons, make lemonade, sell it, turn it into a franchise business & make millions…


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