Stress, Motivation Theories, and Emotional Responses
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Stress, Motivation Theories, and Emotional Responses

STRESS. STRESS:. - Holmes & . Rahe. Scales: 1967: Identified experiences for adults and non-adults that are most likely to cause physical health issues. - Types of health problems associated with stress: Cancer, heart disease, high blood pressure.

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Stress, Motivation Theories, and Emotional Responses




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Presentation on theme: "Stress, Motivation Theories, and Emotional Responses"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Stress, Motivation Theories, and Emotional Responses

Slide2

STRESS

Slide3

STRESS:

- Holmes &

Rahe

Scales: 1967: Identified experiences for adults and non-adults that are most likely to cause physical health issues

- Types of health problems associated with stress: Cancer, heart disease, high blood pressure

Slide4

Hans

Selye’s

G

eneral

A

daptation Syndrome

Slide5

Slide6

Slide7

Stage 1: Alarm

-Upon encountering a stressor, body reacts with “fight-or-flight” response and sympathetic nervous system is activated.

-Hormones

such as cortisol and adrenalin released into the bloodstream to meet the threat or danger.

-The

body’s resources now mobilized.

Slide8

Stage 2: Resistance

-Parasympathetic nervous system returns many physiological functions to normal levels while body focuses resources against the stressor.

-Blood

glucose levels remain high, cortisol and adrenalin continue to circulate at elevated levels, but outward appearance of organism seems normal.

-Increase

HR, BP, breathing

-Body remains on red alert.

Slide9

Stage 3: Exhaustion

-If stressor continues beyond body’s capacity, organism exhausts resources and becomes susceptible to disease and death.

Slide10

MOTIVATION THEORIES

Why do we do the things we do?

Slide11

Theory

Psychologist & Perspective

Explanation of Behavior

Instinct Theory

Drive Reduction Theory

Arousal Theory

Incentive

Theory

Cognitive Theory

Self-Actualization Theory

Slide12

12

Motivation and Emotion

Motive

Specific need or desire, such as hunger, thirst, or achievement, that prompts goal-directed behavior

a need or desire that

energizes

behavior and directs it towards a goal.EmotionFeeling, such as fear, joy, or surprise, that underlies behavior

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13

Perspectives on Motivation

There are 6

perspectives to explain motivation

including

the following:

Instinct Theory

Drive-Reduction Theory

Arousal Theory

Incentive Theory

Cognitive Theory

Self-Actualization Theory (AKA Hierarchy

of

Motives)

Slide14

14

Instinct Theory

(Evolutionary Perspective)

1950’s: Instincts

are complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout the species and are not

learned.

Where the woman builds different kinds of houses

the bird builds only one kind of nest.

© Ariel Skelley/ Masterfile

Tony Brandenburg/ Bruce Coleman, Inc.

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15

Instinct Theory

Decreased in popularity

Most important human behavior is learned

Human behavior is rarely inflexible and found throughout the species

Psychologists

during the height of this craze identified 5759 ‘instincts’Humans have reflexes but not instincts

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16

Drive-Reduction Theory

Bodily Needs

(Biological Perspective)

When the instinct theory of motivation failed it was replaced by the drive-reduction theory. A physiological need creates

a state of tension (

a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the

need.

Aim: Homeostasis!

Tension

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17

Two types of drives

Primary drive

-Unlearned drive based on a physiological state found in all animals

Motivate behavior necessary for survival

Hunger, thirst and sex

Secondary drive

-Learned drive – wealth or success

Problems

with

Drive-Reduction Theory

Once homeostasis is achieved we’d never do anything!– Not just balance we’re looking for in life!

Slide18

Arousal Theory

(Cognitive Perspective)

(

Arousal

in this context = Awareness/Focus/Engagement)

Human

motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it

. All of our actions have an

ideal

level of arousal.

-Sleep

-Performing on Stage

-Studying

-Driving

-Watching TV

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Arousal Theory

Yerkes-Dodson Law

States that there is an optimal level of arousal for best performance on any task

The more complex the task, the lower the level of arousal that can be tolerated without interfering with performance

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20

Yerkes-Dodson Law

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Incentive Theory

(Cognitive Perspective)

-Our behaviors are completely based on WANTS

-We are purely motivated by rewards

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Cognitive Theory

(Cognitive Perspective!)

Like the Incentive Theory, but not as simple.

Our behaviors continue/cease due to reinforcement & punishment

Intrinsic

motivation

Motivation for a behavior is the behavior itself

Children playing, for example

Extrinsic motivation

Behavior is performed in order to obtain a reward or to avoid punishment

Money earned for A’s on report card

Slide23

Self-Actualization Theory

AKA Hierarchy

of

Needs Theory

(Humanistic Perspective)

Abraham Maslow (

1970s)

suggested that certain needs have priority over others. Physiological needs like breathing, thirst, and hunger come before psychological needs such as achievement, self-esteem, and the need for recognition.

Slide24

Hierarchy

of Needs

Slide25

Hierarchy

of Needs

Slide26

Hierarchy

of Needs