Embed / Share - Stress, Motivation Theories, and Emotional Responses
Stress, Motivation Theories, and Emotional ResponsesSlide2
- Holmes &
Scales: 1967: Identified experiences for adults and non-adults that are most likely to cause physical health issues
- Types of health problems associated with stress: Cancer, heart disease, high blood pressureSlide4
Stage 1: Alarm
-Upon encountering a stressor, body reacts with “fight-or-flight” response and sympathetic nervous system is activated.
such as cortisol and adrenalin released into the bloodstream to meet the threat or danger.
body’s resources now mobilized.Slide8
Stage 2: Resistance
-Parasympathetic nervous system returns many physiological functions to normal levels while body focuses resources against the stressor.
glucose levels remain high, cortisol and adrenalin continue to circulate at elevated levels, but outward appearance of organism seems normal.
HR, BP, breathing
-Body remains on red alert.Slide9
Stage 3: Exhaustion
-If stressor continues beyond body’s capacity, organism exhausts resources and becomes susceptible to disease and death.Slide10
Why do we do the things we do?Slide11
Psychologist & Perspective
Explanation of Behavior
Drive Reduction Theory
Motivation and Emotion
Specific need or desire, such as hunger, thirst, or achievement, that prompts goal-directed behavior
a need or desire that
behavior and directs it towards a goal.EmotionFeeling, such as fear, joy, or surprise, that underlies behaviorSlide13
Perspectives on Motivation
There are 6
perspectives to explain motivation
Self-Actualization Theory (AKA Hierarchy
are complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout the species and are not
Where the woman builds different kinds of houses
the bird builds only one kind of nest.
© Ariel Skelley/ Masterfile
Tony Brandenburg/ Bruce Coleman, Inc.Slide15
Decreased in popularity
Most important human behavior is learned
Human behavior is rarely inflexible and found throughout the species
during the height of this craze identified 5759 ‘instincts’Humans have reflexes but not instinctsSlide16
When the instinct theory of motivation failed it was replaced by the drive-reduction theory. A physiological need creates
a state of tension (
a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the
Two types of drives
-Unlearned drive based on a physiological state found in all animals
Motivate behavior necessary for survival
Hunger, thirst and sex
-Learned drive – wealth or success
Once homeostasis is achieved we’d never do anything!– Not just balance we’re looking for in life!Slide18
in this context = Awareness/Focus/Engagement)
motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it
. All of our actions have an
level of arousal.
-Performing on Stage
States that there is an optimal level of arousal for best performance on any task
The more complex the task, the lower the level of arousal that can be tolerated without interfering with performanceSlide20
-Our behaviors are completely based on WANTS
-We are purely motivated by rewardsSlide22
Like the Incentive Theory, but not as simple.
Our behaviors continue/cease due to reinforcement & punishment
Motivation for a behavior is the behavior itself
Children playing, for example
Behavior is performed in order to obtain a reward or to avoid punishment
Money earned for A’s on report cardSlide23
Abraham Maslow (
suggested that certain needs have priority over others. Physiological needs like breathing, thirst, and hunger come before psychological needs such as achievement, self-esteem, and the need for recognition.Slide24
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STRESS STRESS Holmes amp Rahe Scales 1967 Identified experiences for adults and nonadults that are most likely to cause physical health issues Types of health problems associated with stress Cancer heart disease high blood pressure ID: 781419 Download